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Intracellular vesicle fusion is mediated by SNAREs and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. Despite intensive efforts, the SNARE-SM mediated vesicle fusion reaction has not been faithfully reconstituted in biochemical assays. Here, we present an unexpected discovery that macromolecular crowding is required for reconstituting the vesicle fusion reaction in vitro.(More)
Circadian clocks are thought to enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to adapt to extrinsic influences, specifically daily changes in environmental factors such as light, temperature, and humidity. Some investigators have proposed that circadian clocks provide an additional "intrinsic adaptive value," that is, the circadian clock that(More)
  • Hong-li Li, Guang-chun Lei, Ying-biao Zhi, Shu-qing An, He-ping Huang, Yan Ouyang +3 others
  • 2011
The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We(More)
ATM and ATR are well documented for their roles in maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA by responding to DNA damage and preparing the cell for repair. Since ATM and ATR have been reported to exist in complexes with histone deacetylases, we asked whether Atm and Atr might also uphold gene silencing by heterochromatin. We show that the Atm/Atr inhibitor(More)
In female mammalian cells, the inactive X chromosome is replicated late in S phase while the active X chromosome is replicated earlier. The replication times of the X chromosomes reflect a general trend in which late replication is associated with gene repression and earlier replication with transcriptional competence. The X-linked Xist gene is expressed(More)
The glucose transporter GLUT4 plays a central role in maintaining body glucose homeostasis. On insulin stimulation, GLUT4-containing vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, relocating GLUT4 from intracellular reservoirs to the cell surface to uptake excess blood glucose. The GLUT4 vesicle fusion reaction requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor(More)
This review reports background information on wetlands in the Northeast Asia and High Asia areas, including wetland coverage and type, significance for local populations, and threats to their vitality and protection, with particular focus on the relationship of how global change influenced wetlands. Natural wetlands in these areas have been greatly depleted(More)
BACKGROUND According to previous studies, even after embryonic cardiac activity is detected, the pregnancy loss rate remains 3-4 %. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in ultrasound parameters between a miscarriage group and an ongoing pregnancy group during the 1(st) trimester and to build a logistic model to predict early(More)