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In some organisms longevity, growth, and developmental rate are improved when they are maintained on a light/dark cycle, the period of which "resonates" optimally with the period of the endogenous circadian clock. However, to our knowledge no studies have demonstrated that reproductive fitness per se is improved by resonance between the endogenous clock and(More)
Intracellular vesicle fusion is mediated by SNAREs and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. Despite intensive efforts, the SNARE-SM mediated vesicle fusion reaction has not been faithfully reconstituted in biochemical assays. Here, we present an unexpected discovery that macromolecular crowding is required for reconstituting the vesicle fusion reaction in vitro.(More)
Circadian clocks are thought to enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to adapt to extrinsic influences, specifically daily changes in environmental factors such as light, temperature, and humidity. Some investigators have proposed that circadian clocks provide an additional "intrinsic adaptive value," that is, the circadian clock that(More)
ATM and ATR are well documented for their roles in maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA by responding to DNA damage and preparing the cell for repair. Since ATM and ATR have been reported to exist in complexes with histone deacetylases, we asked whether Atm and Atr might also uphold gene silencing by heterochromatin. We show that the Atm/Atr inhibitor(More)
In female mammalian cells, the inactive X chromosome is replicated late in S phase while the active X chromosome is replicated earlier. The replication times of the X chromosomes reflect a general trend in which late replication is associated with gene repression and earlier replication with transcriptional competence. The X-linked Xist gene is expressed(More)
The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We(More)
The glucose transporter GLUT4 plays a central role in maintaining body glucose homeostasis. On insulin stimulation, GLUT4-containing vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, relocating GLUT4 from intracellular reservoirs to the cell surface to uptake excess blood glucose. The GLUT4 vesicle fusion reaction requires soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor(More)
This review reports background information on wetlands in the Northeast Asia and High Asia areas, including wetland coverage and type, significance for local populations, and threats to their vitality and protection, with particular focus on the relationship of how global change influenced wetlands. Natural wetlands in these areas have been greatly depleted(More)
Pseudolarix (Pinaceae) is a vulnerable (sensu IUCN) monotypic genus restricted to southeastern China. To better understand levels of genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow among populations of P. amabilis, we developed five compound SSR markers and ten novel polymorphic expressed sequence tags (EST) derived microsatellites. The results showed(More)