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Parasites do not always harm their hosts because the immune system keeps an infection at bay. Ironically, the cost of using immune defenses could itself reduce host fitness. This indirect cost of parasitism is often not visible because of compensatory resource intake. Here, workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, were challenged with(More)
Many parasites, including important species that affect humans and livestock, must survive the harsh environment of insect guts to complete their life-cycle. Hence, understanding how insects protect themselves against such parasites has immediate practical implications. Previously, such protection has been thought to consist mainly of mechanical structures(More)
Mobile users are facing the fact that many heterogenous radio access technologies coexist, ranging from wireless LANs to cellular systems. No technology has emerged as common and universal solution which makes the current trends today toward design of All-IP wireless networks, where radio cells are under the control of IP Access Routers for signalling and(More)
Immune-challenged vertebrate females transfer specific antibodies to their offspring, but this gratuitous immunity cannot operate in invertebrates. Here we show that constitutive immune defence is enhanced in sexual offspring of the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris L. when the parental colony is immune-challenged. Our findings indicate that invertebrates may(More)
The growing demand for high-speed wireless access to the Internet is the driving force behind the current trends to design All-IP wireless networks, whose Access Router and mobile stations use Internet Protocol for signaling and /or data transport. That will allow an ubiquitous IP-based access by mobile users, with special emphasis on the ability to use a(More)
This paper describes the adaptation of an experimental software radio system, based on UMTS-TDD and providing direct interconnection with an IPv6 Core Network, developed in the context of several research projects. It focuses on the convergence of a 3GPP-based system towards "pure-IP" architecture. The platform presented is designed using open architectures(More)
Mobile users are facing the fact that many heterogenous radio access technologies coexist, ranging from wireless LANs to cellular systems. No technology has emerged as a common and universal solution which makes the current trends today toward the design of All-IP wireless networks, where radio cells are under the control of IP Access Routers for signalling(More)
This paper presents a quality of service routing model for mobile ad hoc networks. Our model considers the characteristics of manet and emulates Intserv and Diffserv in that at application layer it uses end-to-end mechanisms for path establishment and at the network layer it utilizes a coding scheme to guarantee network resources on per-hop basis(More)