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Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses. ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling. It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to(More)
OBJECTIVE There has been growing evidence that inflammatory markers play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically review prospective studies on the associations of elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) with increased risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
AIMS Repeated exposure to heroin, a typical opiate, causes neuronal adaptation and may result in anatomical changes in specific brain regions, particularly the frontal and limbic cortices. The volume changes of gray matter (GM) of these brain regions, however, have not been identified in heroin addiction. METHODS Using structural magnetic resonance(More)
Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) play critical roles in this(More)
The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is a key structure of pain affect. Whether and how estrogen in the rACC regulates pain-related negative emotion remains unclear. Behaviorally, using formalin-induced conditioned place aversion (F-CPA) in rats, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we found that estrogen receptor (ER)(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with a strong genetic predisposition, characterized by an upregulated type I interferon pathway. MicroRNAs are important regulators of immune homeostasis, and aberrant microRNA expression has been demonstrated in patients with autoimmune diseases. We recently identified miR-146a as a(More)
Tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS) produces long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal cord. This potentiation is considered to be a substrate for long-lasting sensitization in the spinal pain pathway. Because microglia have previously been shown to regulate the induction of spinal LTP, we hypothesize that P2X7(More)
Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity characterized by cell-wide changes in synaptic strength in response to changes in overall levels of neuronal activity. Here we report that bicuculline-induced increase in neuronal activity leads to a decrease in mEPSC amplitude and a decrease in expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in(More)
Over the course of ontogenesis, the human brain and human cognitive abilities develop in parallel, resulting in a phenotype strikingly distinct from that of other primates. Here, we used microarrays and RNA-sequencing to examine human-specific gene expression changes taking place during postnatal brain development in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of(More)
Phenolic glucoside gastrodin (Gas), which is a main component extracted from the Chinese herbs Gastrodia elata Bl, is a well-known natural calcium antagonist with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. It has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have shown that gastrodin possesses(More)