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Dothideomycetes comprise a highly diverse range of fungi characterized mainly by asci with two wall layers (bitunicate asci) and often with fissitunicate dehiscence. Many species are saprobes, with many asexual states comprising important plant pathogens. They are also endophytes, epiphytes, fungicolous, lichenized, or lichenicolous fungi. They occur in(More)
The type specimens of Auerswaldia, Auerswaldiella, Barriopsis, Botryosphaeria, Leptoguignardia, Melanops, Neodeightonia, Phaeobotryon, Phaeobotryosphaeria, Phyllachorella, Pyrenostigme, Saccharata, Sivanesania, Spencermartinsia and Vestergrenia were examined and fresh specimens of Botryosphaeriales were collected from Thailand. This material is used to(More)
Expiratory neurones, with a decrementing firing pattern during the first phase of expiration (E-DEC) and located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, are thought to be involved in the network generating respiratory rhythm, which also includes expiratory neurones with augmenting firing patterns (E-AUG). We used cross-correlation to detect their synaptic(More)
The abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is one of the most important hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is an aggregation-prone and toxic polypeptide with 39-43 residues, derived from the amyloid precursor protein proteolysis process. According to the amyloid hypothesis, abnormal accumulation of Aβ in the brain is the primary(More)
Copper is known to be a critical factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, as it is involved in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide related toxicity. However, the relationship between neurotoxicity and Aβ peptide in the presence of copper remains unclear. The effect of copper has not been clearly differentiated between Aβ42 and Aβ40, and it is still debated(More)
Copper (II) has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for the impaired homeostatic mechanism found in the brains of AD patients. Here we studied the binding properties of Cu(II) with the first microtubule-binding repeat, encompassing residues 256-273 of the human tau441 sequence. Additionally, the effect of Cu(II) on the assembly of(More)
Copper enhances amyloid cytotoxicity and mediates human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) oligomerization; nickel, a redox inactive metal with similar protein binding affinity to copper, also mimics this effect, thereby demonstrating copper-mediated hIAPP cytotoxicity is due mainly to granular oligomer generation rather than ROS accumulation in type 2(More)
We have recently reported that soluble calreticulin (CRT) accumulates in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, following self-oligomerization, soluble recombinant CRT (rCRT) polypeptides exhibit potent immunostimulatory activities including macrophage activation in vitro and antibody induction in vivo.(More)
Abnormal assembly of monomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease leads to the formation of most neurotoxic oligomers in vivo. In this study, we explored a linking strategy to design hybrid peptides, by combining the Abeta recognition motif and the solvent disruptive sequences. We found that in vitro all synthetic peptides with the recognition(More)
In the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, the tau protein dissociates from the axonal microtubule and abnormally aggregates to form a paired helical filament (PHF). One of the priorities in Alzheimer research is to determine the effects of abnormal phosphorylation on the local structure. A series of peptides corresponding to isolated regions of tau(More)