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Central to innate immunity is the sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by cytosolic and membrane-associated receptors. In particular, DNA is a potent activator of immune responses during infection or tissue damage, and evidence indicates that, in addition to the membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 9, an unidentified cytosolic DNA sensor(s)(More)
S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues. We report here that receptor for AGE (RAGE) is a central cell surface receptor for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein) and related members of the S100/calgranulin(More)
Germplasm diversity is the mainstay for crop improvement and genetic dissection of complex traits. Understanding genetic diversity, population structure, and the level and distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target populations is of great importance and a prerequisite for association mapping. In this study, 100 genome-wide simple sequence repeat(More)
Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes is a major cause of their morbidity and mortality, and it is unresponsive to therapy aimed at restoring relative euglycemia. In hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids results in the accumulation of irreversibly formed advanced glycation endproducts. These advanced(More)
BACKGROUND Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic granulomatous cholangitis, characteristically associated with antimitochondrial antibodies. Twin and family aggregation data suggest that there is a significant genetic predisposition to primary biliary cirrhosis, but the susceptibility loci are unknown. METHODS To identify genetic loci conferring a risk(More)
The activation of innate immune responses by nucleic acids is crucial to protective and pathological immunities and is mediated by the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic receptors. However, it remains unknown whether a mechanism exists that integrates these nucleic-acid-sensing systems. Here we show that high-mobility group box (HMGB)(More)
ERF transcription factors play important roles in regulating gene expression under abiotic and biotic stresses. The first member of the ERF gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was isolated by screening a drought-induced cDNA library and designated as T. aestivum ethylene-responsive factor 1 (TaERF1), which encoded a putative protein of 355 amino(More)
The spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) is a major termination region for unmyelinated (C) primary afferent fibers; however, how the input it receives from these sensory fibers is processed by SG neurons remains primarily a matter of conjecture. To gain insight on connections and functional interactions between intrinsic SG neurons, simultaneous tight-seal,(More)
DNA, whether it is microbe-derived or host-derived, evokes immune responses when exposed to the cytosol of a cell. We previously reported that DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors (DAI), also referred to as DLM-1/ZBP1, functions as a DNA sensor that activates the innate immune system. In the present study, we examined the regulation of the(More)
This paper presents a rate control scheme for H.264 by introducing the concept of basic unit and a linear prediction model. The basic unit can be a macroblock (MB), a slice, or a frame. It can be used to obtain a trade-off between the overall coding efficiency and the bits fluctuation. The linear model is used to solve the chicken and egg dilemma existing(More)