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Essential genes are those indispensable for the survival of an organism, and their functions are therefore considered a foundation of life. Determination of a minimal gene set needed to sustain a life form, a fundamental question in biology, plays a key role in the emerging field, synthetic biology. Five years after we constructed DEG, a database of(More)
Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis,(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) occur in certain human brain tumors, but their mechanistic role in tumor development is unknown. We have shown that tumor-derived IDH1 mutations impair the enzyme's affinity for its substrate and dominantly inhibit wild-type IDH1 activity through the formation of catalytically(More)
Lysine acetylation regulates many eukaryotic cellular processes, but its function in prokaryotes is largely unknown. We demonstrated that central metabolism enzymes in Salmonella were acetylated extensively and differentially in response to different carbon sources, concomitantly with changes in cell growth and metabolic flux. The relative activities of key(More)
BACKGROUND The narrow host range of Mycobacterium leprae and the fact that it is refractory to growth in culture has limited research on and the biologic understanding of leprosy. Host genetic factors are thought to influence susceptibility to infection as well as disease progression. METHODS We performed a two-stage genomewide association study by(More)
Mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is an important antioxidant enzyme, deficiency of which is associated with various human diseases. The known primary regulation of SOD2 is through transcriptional activation. Here, we report that SOD2 is acetylated at Lys 68 and that this acetylation decreases SOD2 activity. Mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3(More)
In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the conversion of biomass into fuel ethanol, considered the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Significant advances have been made towards the technology of ethanol fermentation. This review provides practical examples and gives a broad overview of the current status of ethanol(More)
Robustness is one of the crucial important issues in watermarking. Robustness against geometric distortion and JPEG compression at the same time with blind extraction remains especially challenging. In this paper, a blind discrete wavelet transform-discrete Fourier transform (DWT-DFT) composite image watermarking algorithm that is robust against both affine(More)
The combination of high-density transposon-mediated mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing has led to significant advancements in research on essential genes, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of identified prokaryotic essential genes under diverse conditions and a revised essential-gene concept that includes all essential genomic elements,(More)
Traditional FPGAs use uniform supply voltage Vdd and uniform threshold voltage Vt. We propose to use pre-defined dual-Vdd and dual-Vt fabrics to reduce FPGA power. We design FPGA circuits with dual-Vdd/dual-Vt to effectively reduce both dynamic power and leakage power, and define dual-Vdd/dual-Vt FPGA fabrics based on the profiling of benchmark circuits. We(More)