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A fundamental function of the visual system is to encode the building blocks of natural scenes-edges, textures and shapes-that subserve visual tasks such as object recognition and scene understanding. Essential to this process is the formation of abstract representations that generalize from specific instances of visual input. A common view holds that(More)
Capturing statistical regularities in complex, high-dimensional data is an important problem in machine learning and signal processing. Models such as principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) make few assumptions about the structure in the data and have good scaling properties, but they are limited to representing linear(More)
Efficient coding provides a powerful principle for explaining early sensory coding. Most attempts to test this principle have been limited to linear, noiseless models, and when applied to natural images, have yielded oriented filters consistent with responses in primary visual cortex. Here we show that an efficient coding model that incorporates(More)
Capturing statistical regularities in complex, high-dimensional data is an important problem in machine learning and signal processing. Models such as PCA and ICA make few assumptions about the structure in the data, have good scaling properties, but are limited to representing linear statistical regularities and assume that the distribution of the data is(More)
Some genes produce transcripts that function directly in regulatory, catalytic, or structural roles in the cell. These non-coding RNAs are prevalent in all living organisms, and methods that aid the understanding of their functional roles are essential. RNA secondary structure, the pattern of base-pairing, contains the critical information for determining(More)
The theoretical principles that underlie the representation and computation of higher-order structure in natural images are poorly understood. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using information theoretic techniques, such as independent component analysis, to derive representations for natural images that are optimal in the sense of coding(More)
Linear implementations of the efficient coding hypothesis, such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse coding models, have provided functional explanations for properties of simple cells in V1 [1, 2]. These models, however, ignore the non-linear behavior of neurons and fail to match individual and population properties of neural receptive fields(More)
Estimating student proficiency is an important task for computer based learning systems. We compare a family of IRT-based proficiency estimation methods to Deep Knowledge Tracing (DKT), a recently proposed recurrent neural network model with promising initial results. We evaluate how well each model predicts a student's future response given previous(More)