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The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. The genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that Shigella, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of E.coli and form a single pathovar. Nevertheless, Shigella(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has rapidly spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years; the magnitude of the epidemic is unclear. We sought to test 3 hypotheses: (1) The prevalence of both HIV and syphilis among MSM in China is high, (2) the 2 epidemics each have unique geographical distributions, and (3) demographic(More)
According to the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) exist precocious and local convergence problem, Put forward a kind of improved particle swarm optimization algorithm, the gradient descent method (BP algorithm) as a particle swarm operator embedded in particle swarm algorithm, By static function approximation to test of the improvement of the(More)
STING is an essential signaling molecule for DNA and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-mediated type I interferon (IFN) production via TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway. It contains an N-terminal transmembrane region and a cytosolic C-terminal domain (CTD). Here, we describe crystal structures of STING CTD alone and(More)
The induction of type I interferons by the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) or cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is dependent on a signaling axis that involves the adaptor STING, the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Here we identified the heliase DDX41 as a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that sensed both c-di-GMP and(More)
The age-specific rates of hip fractures have been declining in most countries in the West but a few studies suggest that the rates might be increasing in areas of Asia that are undergoing urbanization. We previously conducted a population-based study of hip fracture rates in Beijing, China, in 1990 to 1992 that included validation of hip fracture cases.(More)
Vagal neural crest-derived precursors of the enteric nervous system colonize the bowel by descending within the enteric mesenchyme. Perpendicular secondary migration, toward the mucosa and into the pancreas, result, respectively, in the formation of submucosal and pancreatic ganglia. We tested the hypothesis that netrins guide these secondary migrations.(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes key proteins associated with the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Defects to mtDNA cause severe disease phenotypes that can affect offspring survival. The aim of this review is to identify how mtDNA is replicated as it transits from the fertilized oocyte into the preimplantation embryo, the fetus and(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of bla(NDM-1) in Gram-negative bacilli in China. METHODS A total of 11 298 clinical Gram-negative bacilli, covering Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were collected for PCR-based surveillance of bla(NDM-1) from 57 hospitals representing 18 provinces in(More)