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Loss of synapses has been correlated with dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an early event during the disease progression. Hence, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in adulthood could serve as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD. Recently, we have demonstrated enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis by oral administration of Ginkgo(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that depression may be both a cause and consequence of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that anti-depressants could provide an alternative strategy to current AD therapies. Association of side effect and herbal-drug interaction with conventional anti-depressant and St. John's wort warrant(More)
The production of neurons from neural progenitor cells, the growth of axons and dendrites and the formation and reorganization of synapses are examples of neuroplasticity. These processes are regulated by cell-autonomous and intercellular (paracrine and endocrine) programs that mediate responses of neural cells to environmental input. Mitochondria are(More)
Cellular damage by reactive oxygen species and altered neurogenesis are implicated in the etiology of AD and the pathogenic actions of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ); the underlying mechanisms and the early oxidative intracellular events triggered by Aβ are not established. In the present study, we found that mouse embryonic cortical neural progenitor cells exhibit(More)
Although high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage cells, ROS can also play roles as second messengers, regulating diverse cellular processes. Here, we report that embryonic mouse cerebral cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs) exhibit intermittent spontaneous bursts of mitochondrial superoxide (SO) generation (mitochondrial SO flashes) that(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) serve as molecular chaperones and endogenous cytoprotective factors. Two of the well-studied HSPs, HSP70, and HSP27 can be significantly induced in many areas of brain by a variety of stressors. A decrease in expression of brain HSPs has been documented in aged brain. Estrogen is well known as a neuroprotective hormone, and it has(More)
Pu-erh tea is believed to possess many beneficial health effects since it is a natural source of cardioprotective lipid lowering and antioxidant compounds, although, the major constituents putatively responsible for these beneficial effects remain unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of two commonly consumed forms of Pu-erh tea, fermented and(More)
In the process of neurogenesis, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) cease dividing and differentiate into postmitotic neurons that grow dendrites and an axon, become excitable, and establish synapses with other neurons. Mitochondrial biogenesis and aerobic metabolism provide energy substrates required to support the differentiation, growth and synaptic activity(More)
AIMS Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae) is a perennial diploid species found in high-montane areas. It is distributed in fragmented populations across northern, central and northwestern China. In this study, we aimed to (i) measure the genetic diversity of this species and that of its populations; (ii) describe the genetic structure of these populations(More)
The phylogeographical patterns of Rhodiola dumulosa, an alpine plant species restrictedly growing in the crevices of rock piles, were investigated based on 4 fragments of the chloroplast genome. To cover the full distribution of R. dumulosa in China, 19 populations from 3 major disjunct distribution areas (northern, central, and northwestern China) were(More)