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OBJECTIVES This study examined maturation of mismatch responses (MMRs) to an English vowel contrast (/I/ versus /ε/) in 4- to 7-yr-old children. DESIGN Event-related potentials were recorded to a standard [ε] and deviant [I] vowel presented in trains of 10 stimuli at a rate of 1/650 msecs and with an intertrain interval of 1.5 secs. Each train contained(More)
The goal of this paper was to examine intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to the development of speech perception in monolingual and bilingual infants and toddlers. A substantial number of behavioral studies have characterized when infants show changes in behavior towards speech sounds in relation to amount of experience with these sounds. However,(More)
Neurophysiological studies of infant speech suggest that mismatch responses (MMRs) have predictive value for later language. Their value, however, is diminished because unexplained differences in the MMR patterns are seen across studies. The current study aimed to identify the functional nature of infant MMRs by recording event-related-potentials (ERPs) to(More)
Mu transposition complexes were used for transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA68. Mu DNA transposition complexes were assembled with MuA transposase and an artificial mini-Mu transposon in vitro, and introduced into Pseudomonas aeruginosa by electroporation. Eight mutants deficient in twitching motility were isolated. Southern blotting(More)
The goal of the current analysis was to examine the maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) from three months of age to eight years of age. The superior frontal positive-negative-positive sequence (P1, N2, P2) and the temporal site, negative-positive-negative sequence (possibly, Na, Ta, Tb of the T-complex) were examined. Event-related(More)
The Predictive Safety Testing Consortium's first regulatory submission to qualify kidney safety biomarkers revealed two deficiencies. To address the need for biomarkers that monitor recovery from agent-induced renal damage, we scored changes in the levels of urinary biomarkers in rats during recovery from renal injury induced by exposure to carbapenem A or(More)
The ovariectomized (OVX) rat is widely used in osteoporosis research, but no standard model exists. The individual effects of rat age, skeletal site, and time post-ovariectomy (post-OVX) on bone have been examined. However, the relationship between them is not yet fully explored. This study examined how various combinations of rat age, skeletal site, and(More)
In the last decade, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNA molecules) as post-transcriptional regulators have been a hotspot in research for their involvement in biological processes and tumour development. However, there have been few reviews focusing on a single miRNA family. The dysregulation of miRNAs appears to play a crucial role in cancer(More)
PURPOSE Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are being developed to improve tendon-bone healing. To do this, it is essential to understand the endogenous expression of BMPs and their downstream signal transduction factors, Smads, during tendon-bone healing. METHODS An extra-articular patellar tendon-bone healing ovine model was set up, and histologic(More)
Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that acts by inhibiting tumor growth and disrupting tumor microvasculature through antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic and proapoptotic effects. It exerts these effects via inhibition of multiple targets including Raf serine/threonine kinases, vascular endothelial growth factor(More)