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Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor., is highly damaging for Chinese cabbage. The CR (clubroot resistant) Shinki DH (doubled haploid) line of Chinese cabbage carries a single dominant gene, CRb, which confers resistance to the P. brassicae races 2, 4, and 8. An F2 population derived from a cross between the CR Shinki DH line and a(More)
Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormal development of liver, heart, skeleton, eye, face and, less frequently, kidney. Analyses of many patients with cytogenetic deletions or rearrangements have mapped the gene to chromosome 20p12, although deletions are found in a relatively small proportion of patients (< 7%). We have(More)
The development of a tumor vasculature or access to the host vasculature is a crucial step for the survival and metastasis of malignant tumors. Although therapeutic strategies attempting to inhibit this step during tumor development are being developed, the biological regulation of this process is still largely unknown. Using a transgenic mouse susceptible(More)
Adverse environmental conditions produce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. In response to heat or ER stress agents, Arabidopsis seedlings mitigate stress damage by activating ER-associated transcription factors and a RNA splicing factor, IRE1b. IRE1b splices the mRNA-encoding bZIP60, a basic leucine-zipper domain containing transcription factor(More)
BACKGROUND The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran(More)
Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction(More)
BACKGROUND The stromal microenvironment and particularly the macrophage component of primary tumors influence their malignant potential. However, at the metastatic site the role of these cells and their mechanism of actions for establishment and growth of metastases remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using animal models of breast(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common in developed countries and rare in countries where intestinal nematode infections are common. T cells are critical in many immune responses, including those associated with IBD and nematode infection. Among the distinct T helper (Th) cell subsets, Th1-type immune response is(More)
Recent neuroimaging and postmortem studies have reported abnormalities in white matter of schizophrenic brains, suggesting the involvement of oligodendrocytes in the etiopathology of schizophrenia. This view is being supported by gene microarray studies showing the downregulation of genes related to oligodendrocyte function and myelination in schizophrenic(More)
In this article, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes morphological changes in structure during ER stress that can be attributed to autophagy. ER stress agents trigger autophagy as demonstrated by increased production of autophagosomes. In response to ER stress, a soluble ER marker localizes to autophagosomes and(More)