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To study the function of clock-gene-expressing neurons, the tetanus-toxin light chain (TeTxLC), which blocks chemical synaptic transmission, was expressed under the control of promoters of the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim), each fused to GAL4-encoding sequences. Although TeTxLC did not affect cycling of a clock-gene product at the gross level,(More)
The period (per) gene is an essential component of the circadian timekeeping mechanism in Drosophila. This gene is expressed in a circadian manner, giving rise to a protein that feeds-back to regulate its own transcription. A 69 bp clock regulatory sequence (CRS) has been identified previously upstream of the period gene. The CRS confers wild-type mRNA(More)
Two TK+ acyclovir-resistant variants of herpes simplex virus (HSV) (S1 and Tr7) and one TK+ BVdU-resistant variant (B3) induce abnormal thymidine kinases with impaired ability to phosphorylate the drugs used in their isolation. These enzymes have been purified and their properties compared with those of the wild-type (wt) parent, SC16. The enzyme induced by(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression via translational inhibition or mRNA degradation followed by protein synthesis repression. Many miRNAs are expressed in a tissue- and/or cell-specific manner and their expression patterns are reflective of underlying patho-physiologic(More)
Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), a major mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, targets various mitochondrial proteins for lysine deacetylation and regulates important cellular functions such as energy metabolism, aging, and stress response. In this study, we identified the human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a DNA repair enzyme that excises(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated cellular process employed by living cells to degrade proteins and organelles as a response to metabolic stress. We have previously reported that eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase, also known as Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III) can positively modulate autophagy and(More)
Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a major mitochondria NAD+-dependent deacetylase, may target mitochondrial proteins for lysine deacetylation and also regulate cellular functions. And, SIRT3 is an emerging instrumental regulator of the mitochondrial adaptive response to stress, such as metabolic reprogramming and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Accumulating evidence has(More)
Autophagy (macroautophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process, in which a cell degrades long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed the core molecular machinery of autophagy in carcinogenesis; however, the intricate relationship between autophagy and cancer continue to remain an enigma.(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal self-digestion process involved in degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is associated with a number of pathological processes, including cancer. In this review, we focus on the recent studies of the evolutionarily conserved(More)
Nucleus accumbens-1 (NAC1), a nuclear factor belonging to the BTB/POZ gene family, is known to have important roles in proliferation and growth of tumor cells and in chemotherapy resistance. Yet, the mechanisms underlying how NAC1 contributes to drug resistance remain largely unclear. We report here that autophagy was involved in NAC1-mediated resistance to(More)