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CRISPR/Cas9 genome targeting systems have been applied to a variety of species. However, most CRISPR/Cas9 systems reported for plants can only modify one or a few target sites. Here, we report a robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, utilizing a plant codon optimized Cas9 gene, for convenient and high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot(More)
The Pap test has effectively reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, because of the morphological basis of this test, sensitivity and specificity are less than ideal, a situation that complicates the clinical management of women diagnosed with low-grade cervical abnormalities. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of(More)
Smac mimetic compounds targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) baculoviral IAP repeat-3 domain are presumed to reduce the threshold for apoptotic cell death by alleviating caspase-9 repression. We explored this tenet in an unbiased manner by searching for small interfering RNAs that are able to confer resistance to the Smac mimetic compound(More)
The use of RNA interference (RNAi) has enabled loss-of-function studies in mammalian cancer cells and has hence become critical for identifying and validating cancer drug targets. Current transient siRNA and stable shRNA systems, however, have limited utility in accurately assessing the cancer dependency due to their short-lived effects and limited in vivo(More)
PDE4 (phosphodiesterase-4)-selective inhibitors have attracted much attention as potential therapeutics for the treatment of both depression and major inflammatory diseases, but their practical application has been compromised by side effects. A possible cause for the side effects is that current PDE4-selective inhibitors similarly inhibit isoforms from all(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a potentially dangerous complication of thrombolytic therapy. Recent studies suggest that diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) can help to predict the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after thrombolysis. We sought to examine which pretreatment DWI parameters and clinical data are predictive of ICH(More)
HER2/HER3 dimerization resulting from overexpression of HER2 or neuregulin (NRG1) in cancer leads to HER3-mediated oncogenic activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Although ligand-blocking HER3 antibodies inhibit NRG1-driven tumor growth, they are ineffective against HER2-driven tumor growth because HER2 activates HER3 in a(More)
Previously we found that musicians have significantly larger anterior corpus callosum (CC). In the current study, we intended to replicate and extend our previous results using a new and larger sample of gender-matched subjects (56 right-handed professional musicians and 56 age- and handedness-matched controls). We found a significant gender x musicianship(More)
This paper presents a control method for tracking electric ground vehicle planar motions while achieving the optimal energy consumption. Sliding mode control and an energy-efficient control allocation (CA) scheme are synthesized to track the desired vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions. By explicitly incorporating actuator efficiencies and(More)