Learn More
Autophagy is a homeostatic process for recycling of proteins and organelles, induced by nutrient deprivation and regulated by oxygen radicals. Whether autophagy is induced after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not established. We show that TBI in mice results in increased ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of autophagy. Specifically, autophagosomal(More)
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiological form of cell death that is important for normal embryologic development and cell turnover in adult organisms. Cumulative evidence suggests that apoptosis can also be triggered in tissues without a high rate of cell turnover, including those within the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, a crucial(More)
Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification performed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), involved in many diverse cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription, and long-term potentiation. Paradoxically, PARP over-activation under pathologic conditions including traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in cell death. We previously(More)
Activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) by phosphorylation at serine-473 and threonine-308 promotes cell survival in multiple in vitro and in vivo models where neuronal death is seen, including traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, whether PKB is activated in humans after TBI was heretofore unknown. Activated PKB inhibits apoptogenic(More)
In the central nervous system, increased autophagy has now been reported after traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and seizures. This increase in autophagy could be physiologic, converting damaged or dysfunctional proteins, lipids, and/or organelles to their amino acid and fatty acid components for recycling.(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins may be useful biomarkers of neuronal death and ultimate prognosis after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Cytochrome c has been identified in the CSF of children following traumatic brain injury. Cytochrome c is required for cellular respiration but it is also a central component of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Thus,(More)
Increased autophagy/mitophagy is thought to contribute to cerebellar dysfunction in Purkinje cell degeneration mice. Intriguingly, cerebellar Purkinje cells are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (HI), related at least in part to their high metabolic activity. Whether or not excessive or supraphysiologic autophagy plays a role in Purkinje cell(More)
  • 1