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Phospholipid meets all-trans-retinal: the making of RPE bisretinoids
Evidence for the formation of a condensation product between the photolyzed chromophore all-trans-retinal and phosphatidylethanolamine indicates that phospholipid may also participate in the movement of the retinoid in the membrane.
Interpretations of fundus autofluorescence from studies of the bisretinoids of the retina.
Elevated fundus autofluorescence signals can reflect enhanced lipofuscin in RPE cells, augmented fluorescence due to photooxidation, and/or excess bisretinoid fluorophores in photoreceptor cells due
Structural characterization of bisretinoid A2E photocleavage products and implications for age-related macular degeneration
It is significant that AGE-modified proteins are detected in deposits that accumulate below RPE cells in vivo; drusen have been linked to age-related macular degeneration pathogenesis and these findings are indicative of a contribution from lipofuscin photooxidation in RPE.
Fundus autofluorescence and the bisretinoids of retina.
Fluorescence emission from RPE lipofuscin was generated with a wide range of exciting wavelengths; with increasing excitation wavelength, the emission maximum shifted towards longer wavelengths and spectral width was decreased, which are consistent with fluorescence generation from a mixture of compounds.
Novel Lipofuscin Bisretinoids Prominent in Human Retina and in a Model of Recessive Stargardt Disease*
Efforts to clarify the composition of RPE lipofuscin are important because these compounds are targets of gene-based and drug therapies that aim to alleviate ABCA4-related retinal disease.
Enzymatic degradation of A2E, a retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin bisretinoid.
Findings indicate that RPE bisretinoids such as A2E can be degraded by appropriate enzyme activities, as proof of principle it is reported that horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can cleave the RPE Bisretinoid A1E.
A new class of natural glycopeptides with sugar moiety-dependent antioxidant activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies.
A water-soluble glycopeptide, fractionated and purified from the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, showed lower DPPH radical-scavenging activity but possessed higher superoxide radical-quenching potency, suggesting that it could be presented as a possible new source of natural antioxidants.
Melanoregulin (MREG) Modulates Lysosome Function in Pigment Epithelial Cells*
It is suggested that MREG is required for lysosome maturation and support a role for MREG in intracellular trafficking and loss of MREG function results in phagosome accumulation due to delayed degradation of engulfed material.
Structural characterization and DPPH radical scavenging activity of an arabinoglucogalactan from Panax notoginseng root.
The structure of an antiradical arabinoglucogalactan from Panax notoginseng roots was determined and exhibited high scavenging activity against DPPH free radicals, suggesting that this arabinosaccharide is a potential antirADical.