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Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase's activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA(More)
Economical and thermostable phytase enzymes are needed to release phytate-phosphorus in plant foods for human and animal nutrition and to reduce phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to determine if a methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, was able to express a phytase gene (phyA) from Aspergillus niger efficiently and if suppression of(More)
We have investigated sacral spinal cord lesions in rats with the goal of developing a rat model of muscular spasticity that is minimally disruptive, not interfering with bladder, bowel, or hindlimb locomotor function. Spinal transections were made at the S2 sacral level and, thus, only affected the tail musculature. After spinal transection, the muscles of(More)
Sepsis induces lymphocyte apoptosis and prevention of lymphocyte death may improve the chances of surviving this disorder. We compared the efficacy of a selective caspase-3 inhibitor to a polycaspase inhibitor and to caspase-3-/- mice. Both inhibitors prevented lymphocyte apoptosis and improved survival. Caspase-3-/- mice shared a decreased, but not total,(More)
Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been identified. These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, the PEP gene cluster contains six transcriptional units that are expressed during infection of pea(More)
Bacterial strains were isolated from the pig colon to screen for phytase and acid phosphatase activities. Among 93 colonies, Colony 88 had the highest activities for both enzymes and was identified as an Escherichia coli strain. Using primers derived from the E. coli pH 2.5 acid phosphatase appA sequence (Dassa et al. (1990), J. Bacteriol. 172, 5497-5500),(More)
Dosage compensation in mammals occurs by X inactivation, a silencing mechanism regulated in cis by the X inactivation center (Xic). In response to developmental cues, the Xic orchestrates events of X inactivation, including chromosome counting and choice, initiation, spread, and establishment of silencing. It remains unclear what elements make up the Xic.(More)
The movement protein (MP) of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a multifunctional protein that potentiates the cell-to-cell and long distance movement of the virus. Functional domains in the CaMV MP were determined by analyzing deletions in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MP fusions transfected into Arabidopsis thaliana leaf protoplasts. GFP-MP accumulated(More)
The type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are Mg(2+)-dependent hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3', 5'-cAMP to AMP. Previous studies indicate that PDE4 exists in two conformations that bind the inhibitor rolipram with affinities differing by more than 100-fold. Here we report that these two conformations are the consequence of PDE4(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine expressed by angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that functions as an autocrine growth factor. In this study, we analyze the mechanism for Ang II-inducible IL-6 expression in quiescent rat VSMCs. Stimulation with the Ang II agonist Sar1 Ang II (100 nmol/L) induced(More)