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Steroid hormones, particularly estrogens and glucocorticoids, may play roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We report that estrogens protect cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate toxicity, glucose deprivation, FeSO4 toxicity, and amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) toxicity. The toxicity(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is expressed in neurons wherein it is activated in response to a variety of stress- and injury-related stimuli including exposure to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), and excitotoxic and oxidative insults. NF-kappaB may play a role in the anti-death actions of TNFalpha in cultured hippocampal(More)
Alternative processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) can result in liberation of either secreted forms of beta APP (APPSs), which may play roles in neuronal plasticity and survival, or amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), which can be neurotoxic. In rat hippocampal cell cultures A beta 1-40 caused a time- and concentration-dependent reduction(More)
Uric acid is a well-known natural antioxidant present in fluids and tissues throughout the body. Oxyradical production and cellular calcium overload are believed to contribute to the damage and death of neurons that occurs following cerebral ischemia in victims of stroke. We now report that uric acid protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons against cell(More)
In Alzheimer disease (AD) the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) accumulates in plaques in the brain. A beta can be neurotoxic by a mechanism involving induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevation of intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i). In light of evidence for an inflammatory response in the brain in AD and reports of increased levels of(More)
Recent findings indicate that amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) can be neurotoxic by a mechanism involving an increase in the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and the generation of free radicals. In the present study, the lipoxygenase inhibitor/antioxidant nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protected cultured rat hippocampal neurons against the(More)
Potassium channel openers (KCOs) such as diazoxide and levochromakalim can protect cardiac myocytes against ischemic injury and neurons against excitotoxic injury, presumably because of their ability to hyperpolarize the plasma membrane and reduce calcium influx. We now report that diazoxide, levocromakalim (LCC), and to a lesser extent pinacidil, protect(More)
The transcription factor NF kappa B is activated by various signals associated with brain injury, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), oxidative insults, and amyloid beta-peptide (A beta). We recently reported that TNFs activate NF kappa B in neurons and protect them against excitotoxic and oxidative insults, including A beta toxicity. We now report that(More)
Increasing evidence supports the involvement of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) and an excitotoxic mechanism of neuronal injury in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, approaches aimed at preventing A beta toxicity and neurofibrillary degeneration are undeveloped. We now report that anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid)(More)
The amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) that accumulates as insoluble plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's victims can be neurotoxic, by a mechanism that may involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and destabilization of cellular calcium homeostasis. We now provide evidence that the mechanism of neurotoxicity of two other amyloidogenic peptides (APs),(More)