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We study lower bounds on the query complexity of determining correlated equilibrium. In particular, we consider a query model in which an <i>n</i>-player game is specified via a black box that returns players' utilities at pure action profiles. In this model, we establish that in order to compute a correlated equilibrium, any <i>deterministic</i> algorithm(More)
We conjecture that PPAD has a PCP-like complete problem, seeking a near equilibrium in which all but very few players have very little incentive to deviate. We show that, if one assumes that this problem requires exponential time, several open problems in this area are settled. The most important implication, proved via a " birthday repetition " reduction,(More)
Communication is a crucial ingredient in every kind of collaborative work. But what is the least possible amount of communication required for a given task? We formalize this question by introducing a new framework for distributed computation, called oblivious protocols. We investigate the power of this model by considering two concrete examples, the(More)