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BACKGROUND Anopheles lesteri is a primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in central China. A complete understanding of vector population structure and the processes responsible for the differentiation is important to the vector-based malaria control programmes and for identifying heterogeneity in disease transmission as a result of discrete vector populations.(More)
A novel coefficient penalized regularization method for generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) reconstruction is developed for improving MR image quality. In this method, the fitting coefficients of the source data are weighted with different penalty factors, which are highly dependent upon the relative displacements from the(More)
PURPOSE A novel k-space reconstruction method is proposed for generating diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using navigated interleaved multishot EPI (msEPI). THEORY AND METHODS In interleaved msEPI, each shot of data acquired from one coil channel is a subset of the full k-space of that channel. All the k-space subsets of one channel can be treated as an(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population(More)
Horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (TEs). For example, a DNA transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. Here we report the discovery and characterization of an ITmD37D transposon, MJ1, in(More)
Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of visceral leishmaniasis; it occurs in various biotopes with a large geographical distribution, ranging from Yangtze River to northeast China. Phlebotomus sichuanensis, a species closely related to P. chinensis in high altitude regions, has a long term disputation on its taxonomic status. Both species occur in the(More)
Anopheles sinensis has become an important malaria vector in China. The long-term extensive utilization of pyrethroids for ITNs and IRS for mosquito control in the last three decades has resulted in the occurrence of resistant An. sinensis populations in many regions. Knockdown resistance (kdr), caused by point mutations in the VGSC gene, is one of the(More)
Biting midges are hematophagus ectoparasites of insects, humans and other animals. Culicoides (Trithicoides) anophelis Edwards1922 is a predator of engorged mosquitoes. In a field trip of wild mosquito collections, C. anophelis was found on two Anopheles mosquitoes. One mosquito with a midge clinging onto its abdomen was caught on video demonstrating the(More)
Node definition or delineating how the brain is parcellated into individual functionally related regions is the first step to accurately map the human connectome. As a result, parcellation of the human brain has drawn considerable attention in the field of neuroscience. The thalamus is known as a relay in the human brain, with its nuclei sending fibers to(More)
MRI phase data often suffers from phase wrapping (i.e., phase may be discontinuous by 2π jumps). Numerous MRI phase unwrapping strategies were developed in the past using a criterion based on phase information of local or neighboring voxels. In this study, an alternative and novel three dimensional phase unwrapping strategy is introduced. This method(More)