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The correct ratio of the HIV-1 structural protein Gag to the envelope protein (Env) is important for maximal virion infectivity. How the virus ensures the production of Gag and Env proteins in an appropriate ratio remains unknown. We report that HIV-1 exploits the host factor RuvB-like 2 (RVB2) to balance relative expression of Gag and Env for efficient(More)
CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs), chronic HIV-infected(More)
As the first line of defense in the human immune system, NK cells play essential roles in prevention of tumorigenesis and viral infection. It is known that NK cells have impaired function in HIV infection; however, it remains unclear why this occurs. IP-10 is a chemokine and inflammatory factor that is associated with such diseases as tuberculosis,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be(More)
Forkhead box O (FOXO)1, FOXO3, interferon regulatory factor (IRF)4, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xIAP), and E74-like factor (ELF)4 have been described as important regulators of T cell functions and differentiation. However, whether these molecules are associated with HIV-1 disease progression is still unknown. In this study, we showed that the(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against pathogens of the immune system and also play an important role in resistance against HIV. The activating receptor NKG2C and the inhibitory receptor NKG2A co-modulate the function of NK cells by recognizing the same ligand, HLA-E. However, the role of NKG2A and NKG2C on viral set point and the(More)
In HIV disease course, the decline of peripheral CD4 T-cell count correlates with rapid disease progression. The supply of peripheral naive T cells by the thymus requires precursor T-cell proliferation within the thymus. In the setting of HIV-1 infection, when both naive and memory T cells are progressively depleted, the contribution of thymic dysfunction(More)
Co-signaling molecules have been demonstrated to regulate regulatory T cells' (Tregs) function during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A recently reported co-signaling molecule called herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, can both enhance and inhibit the immune response. HVEM was also(More)
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