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The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis belongs to one of the earliest diverged eukaryotic lineages. This is also reflected in a simple intracellular organization, as Giardia lacks common subcellular compartments such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and apparently also a Golgi apparatus. During encystation, developmentally regulated formation of large(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of T-tube free (TTF) versus T-tube drainage (TTD) after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE). BACKGROUND LCBDE has been proven to be an effective and preferred treatment approach for uncomplicated choledocholithiasis, and the appropriateness of T-tube placement after laparoscopic(More)
Transmission of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to vertebrate hosts presupposes the encapsulation of trophozoites into an environmentally resistant and infectious cyst form. We have previously shown that cyst wall proteins were faithfully sorted to large encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), despite the absence of a recognizable Golgi apparatus.(More)
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, affecting millions of people worldwide with almost 80% of them as ischemic stroke and understanding the multiple mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia is essential for development of effective treatments. To understand metabolic changes induced by focal brain ischemia, we conducted a comparative analysis(More)
Algal assay using marine microalgae has emerged as an important method to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals, which is currently undertaken using conventional culture and additional detection of physiological cellular endpoints. While effective, this approach can be labor-intensive and thus could benefit from a more streamlined, integrated approach.(More)
BACKGROUND The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire is one of the most commonly used scales to evaluate functional status and quality of life (QOL) of patients with a broad range of musculoskeletal disorders. However, a Chinese version of the SMFA questionnaire for the psychometric properties of skeletal muscle injury patients in(More)
A novel continuous-flow bioreactor with aerobic granular sludge and self-forming dynamic membrane (CGSFDMBR) was developed for efficient wastewater treatment. Under continuous-flow operation, aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated and characterized with small particle size of about 0.1-1.0mm, low settling velocity of about 15-25 m/h, loose(More)
BACKGROUND As the population ages, the proportion of elderly patients with glioblastomas has increased. Recently, many researchers have focused on the treatments available to and prognoses in elderly patients with glioblastomas. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of glioblastoma patients aged 60 years old or older who were treated at the(More)
This paper describes an initiative to develop Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in mainland China and evaluation of the outcomes of the described programme. The pioneer project was an APN postgraduate programme involving 38 students conducted in Guangzhou, China during 2004-2005. Data related to curriculum content and process, student performance,(More)
Antibody-derived fragments have enormous potential application in solid-phase assays such as biomarker detection and protein purification. Controlled orientation of the immobilized antibody molecules is a critical requirement for the sensitivity and efficacy of such assays. We present an approach for covalent, correctly oriented attachment of scFv antibody(More)