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Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the(More)
RTS,S is the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate, currently under phase-III clinical trials in Africa. This Plasmodium falciparum vaccine contains part of the central repeat region and the complete C-terminal T cell epitope region (Th2R and Th3R) of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Since naturally occurring polymorphisms at the vaccine candidate loci(More)
Quadruple mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PFDHFR) enzyme give rise to the highest level of pyrimethamine resistance leading to treatment failures. We describe here the presence of these quadruple mutations in a majority of P. falciparum isolates from Car Nicobar (Andaman and Nicobar) Island, India. Isolates from the mainland,(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), a fixed dose co-formulation, has recently been approved for marketing in India, although it is not included in the National Drug Policy for treatment of malaria. Efficacy of short course regimen (4 x 4 tablets(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphism in the pfcrt gene underlies Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (CQR), as sensitive strains consistently carry lysine (K), while CQR strains carry threonine (T) at the codon 76. Previous studies have shown that microsatellite (MS) haplotype variation can be used to study the evolution of CQR polymorphism and to characterize(More)
BACKGROUND The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphism and is thus named as the hyper-variable region (HVR). The present study describes the extent of genetic polymorphism and natural(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (Pfnhe-1) locus at chromosome 13 and another locus at chromosome 9 have recently been proposed to influence quinine resistance. Here, we sequenced the ms4760 locus of the Pfnhe-1 gene from 244 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different regions of India. A total of 16 different ms4760 alleles (with one(More)
Tryptophan-rich proteins from several malarial parasites have been identified where they play an important role in host-parasite interaction. Structural characterization of these proteins is needed to develop them as therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a novel Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich protein named PvTRAg33.5. It is expressed by blood stage(s) of(More)
Plasmodium vivax is a very common but non-cultivable malaria parasite affecting large human population in tropical world. To develop therapeutic reagents for this malaria, the parasite molecules involved in host-parasite interaction need to be investigated as they form effective vaccine or drug targets. We have investigated here the erythrocyte binding(More)