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Mutations in the chloroquine resistance (CQR) transporter gene of Plasmodium falciparum (Pfcrt; chromosome 7) play a key role in CQR, while mutations in the multidrug resistance gene (Pfmdr1; chromosome 5) play a significant role in the parasite's resistance to a variety of antimalarials and also modulate CQR. To compare patterns of genetic variation at(More)
Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the(More)
RTS,S is the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate, currently under phase-III clinical trials in Africa. This Plasmodium falciparum vaccine contains part of the central repeat region and the complete C-terminal T cell epitope region (Th2R and Th3R) of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Since naturally occurring polymorphisms at the vaccine candidate loci(More)
The antifolate drugs sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine are commonly used to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, they can also affect the Plasmodium vivax parasite if it coexists with P. falciparum, as both species have common drug targets. Resistance to the antifolate drugs arises due to point mutations in the target enzymes of the respective(More)
Quadruple mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PFDHFR) enzyme give rise to the highest level of pyrimethamine resistance leading to treatment failures. We describe here the presence of these quadruple mutations in a majority of P. falciparum isolates from Car Nicobar (Andaman and Nicobar) Island, India. Isolates from the mainland,(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), a fixed dose co-formulation, has recently been approved for marketing in India, although it is not included in the National Drug Policy for treatment of malaria. Efficacy of short course regimen (4 x 4 tablets(More)
BACKGROUND The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphism and is thus named as the hyper-variable region (HVR). The present study describes the extent of genetic polymorphism and natural(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphism in the pfcrt gene underlies Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (CQR), as sensitive strains consistently carry lysine (K), while CQR strains carry threonine (T) at the codon 76. Previous studies have shown that microsatellite (MS) haplotype variation can be used to study the evolution of CQR polymorphism and to characterize(More)
We report on the multispectral properties of infrared photodetectors based on type II InAs/ Ga͑In͒Sb strain layer superlattices using an nBn heterostructure design. The optical and electrical properties of the midwave and long wave infrared ͑MWIR-LWIR͒ absorbing layers are characterized using spectral response and current-voltage measurements, respectively.(More)
—The quantum-confined Stark effect in intersublevel transitions present in quantum-dots-in-a-well (DWELL) detectors gives rise to a midIR spectral response that is dependent upon the detector's operational bias. The spectral responses resulting from different biases exhibit spectral shifts, albeit with significant spectral overlap. A postprocessing(More)