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The major facilitator superfamily represents the largest group of secondary membrane transporters in the cell. Here we report the 3.3 angstrom resolution structure of a member of this superfamily, GlpT, which transports glycerol-3-phosphate into the cytoplasm and inorganic phosphate into the periplasm. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal halves of the protein(More)
Aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain begins to occur years before the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Before Aβ aggregation, concentrations of extracellular soluble Aβ in the interstitial fluid (ISF) space of the brain, which are regulated by neuronal activity and the sleep-wake cycle, correlate with the amount of Aβ deposition in the(More)
BACKGROUND The amyloid hypothesis predicts that increased production or decreased clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) leads to amyloidosis, which ultimately culminates in Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To investigate whether dynamic changes in Aβ levels in the human central nervous system may be altered by aging or by the pathology of AD and thus contribute to(More)
Active transport of substrates across cytoplasmic membranes is of great physiological, medical and pharmaceutical importance. The glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter (GlpT) of the E. coli inner membrane is a secondary active antiporter from the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily that couples the import of G3P to the efflux of inorganic phosphate(More)
As a novel evolutionary computation, cuckoo search (CS) algorithm has attracted much attention and wide applications, owing to its easy implementation. CS as most population-based algorithm is good at identifying promising area of the search space, but less good at fine-tuning the approximation to the minimization. To the best of our knowledge, the(More)
The amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is diurnally regulated in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood in healthy adults; circadian amplitudes decrease with aging and the presence of cerebral Aβ deposits. The cause of the Aβ diurnal pattern is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is diurnally regulated, leading to APP product(More)
Glycogen storage disease type Ib is caused by mutations in the glucose 6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in liver and kidney. Twenty-eight missense and two deletion mutations that cause the disease were previously shown to reduce or abolish the transporter's activity. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations impair(More)
Here we report the successful three-dimensional crystallization of GlpT, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli inner membrane. GlpT possesses 12 transmembrane alpha-helices and is a member of the major facilitator superfamily. It mediates the exchange of glycerol-3-phosphate for inorganic phosphate across the membrane. Approximately 20(More)
As membrane transporter proteins, VGLUT1-3 mediate the uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles at presynaptic nerve terminals of excitatory neural cells. This function is crucial for exocytosis and the role of glutamate as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The three transporters, sharing 76% amino acid sequence identity(More)
Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) plays a major role in glycolysis and phospholipid biosynthesis in the cell. Escherichia coli uses a secondary membrane transporter protein, GlpT, to uptake G3P into the cytoplasm. The crystal structure of the protein was recently determined to 3.3 A resolution. The protein consists of an N- and a C-terminal domain, each formed by(More)