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BACKGROUND Cocaine is thought to stimulate the cardiovascular system by blocking peripheral norepinephrine reuptake. This study was designed to test the novel hypotheses that cocaine also stimulates the human cardiovascular system by (1) increasing central sympathetic outflow, or (2) decreasing parasympathetic control of heart rate. METHODS AND RESULTS In(More)
BACKGROUND Menopause heralds a dramatic increase in incident hypertension, suggesting a protective effect of estrogen on blood pressure (BP). In female rats, estrogen has been shown to decrease sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) and BP. SND, however, has not been recorded during estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in humans. Methods and Results-In 12(More)
A large body of clinical investigation implicates an important role for the sympathetic nervous system in linking obesity with hypertension. However, the experimental support for this hypothesis is derived from strictly white cohorts. The goal of this study was to determine whether being overweight begets sympathetic overactivity in black Americans, the(More)
The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is known to begin before birth and the impact of the intrauterine environment on subsequent adult health is currently being investigated from many quarters. Following our studies demonstrating the impact of hypoxia in utero and consequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the rat cardiovascular system,(More)
Prenatal hypoxia can alter the growth trajectory of the fetus and cause lasting health complications including vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that offspring that were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) because of prenatal hypoxia would exhibit altered vascular endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling in later life. Isolated mesenteric artery responses to big(More)
Prenatal iron-deficiency (ID) is known to alter fetal developmental trajectories, which predisposes the offspring to chronic disease in later life, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine whether varying degrees of maternal anaemia could induce organ-specific patterns of hypoxia in the fetuses. Pregnant female Sprague(More)
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