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Gem, a member of the Rad,Gem/Kir subfamily of small G-proteins, has unique sequence features. We report here the crystallographic structure determination of the Gem G-domain in complex with nucleotide to 2.4 A resolution. Although the basic Ras protein fold is maintained, the Gem switch regions emphatically differ from the Ras paradigm. Our ensuing… (More)
Several major bacterial pathogens use the type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. Bacterial Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs) comprise a remarkable family of type III secreted toxins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics and manipulate cellular signaling pathways. We show that the RhoGAP activity of Salmonella… (More)
Bacterial GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) subvert their host's eukaryotic Rho GTPases to their own advantage. Studies of bacterial GAPs extend our understanding of the action of eukaryotic GAPs, provide new tools for studies of cytoskeletal dynamics and offer new targets for anti-bacterial drugs.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of food poisoning, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. EPEC virulence is dependent on a type III secretion system (T3SS), a molecular syringe employed by EPEC to inject effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins subvert host cellular functions to the benefit of the… (More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global… (More)
Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product.… (More)
The N terminus of the Aeromonas salmonicida ADP-ribosylating toxin AexT displays in vitro GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity for Rac1, CDC42, and RhoA. HeLa cells transfected with the AexT N terminus exhibit rounding and actin disordering. We propose that the Aeromonas salmonicida AexT toxin is a novel member of the growing family of bacterial RhoGAPs.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject the host cells with dozens of effector proteins, which facilitate… (More)