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Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has a key role in the central stress response, and altered levels of this neuropeptide are linked to stress-related psychopathologies such as anxiety and depression. These disorders are associated with the inability to properly regulate stress response, specifically following exposure to prolonged stressful stimuli.(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Urocortins are the endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2), which is implicated in regulating energy balance and/or glucose metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic CRFR2 activation on metabolism in vivo, by generating and phenotyping transgenic mice overproducing the specific CRFR2 ligand(More)
Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to have an anxiolytic effect in several animal models; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes are not understood. In this study, we have shown that the anxiolytic effect of EE is associated with alterations in the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) expression levels in(More)
In response to physiological or psychological challenges, the brain activates behavioral and neuroendocrine systems linked to both metabolic and emotional outputs designed to adapt to the demand. However, dysregulation of integration of these physiological responses to challenge can have severe psychological and physiological consequences, and inappropriate(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays a major role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and is considered a key mediator of anxiety behavior. The globus pallidus external (GPe), a main relay center within the basal ganglia that is primarily associated with motor and associative functions, is one of(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disease, which affects 8-10% of the population exposed to traumatic events. The factors that make certain individuals susceptible to PTSD and others resilient are currently unknown. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) has been implicated in mediating stress coping mechanisms. Here, we(More)
Signaling by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating the autonomic response to stressful challenges. Multiple hypothalamic nuclei regulate sympathetic outflow. Although CRFR1 is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus, the identity of these neurons and the role of CRFR1 here(More)
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used(More)
All domains of life feature diverse molecular clock machineries that synchronize physiological processes to diurnal environmental fluctuations. However, no mechanisms are known to cross-regulate prokaryotic and eukaryotic circadian rhythms in multikingdom ecosystems. Here, we show that the intestinal microbiota, in both mice and humans, exhibits diurnal(More)
The effects of stress on energy balance and the involvement of the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor in modulating the anorexia of stress and sympathetic nervous system tone are well recognized. Currently, studies centered on the roles of the more recently described members of this family of ligands, the urocortins, and their preferred receptor,(More)