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Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used(More)
Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to have an anxiolytic effect in several animal models; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes are not understood. In this study, we have shown that the anxiolytic effect of EE is associated with alterations in the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) expression levels in(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has a key role in the central stress response, and altered levels of this neuropeptide are linked to stress-related psychopathologies such as anxiety and depression. These disorders are associated with the inability to properly regulate stress response, specifically following exposure to prolonged stressful stimuli.(More)
All domains of life feature diverse molecular clock machineries that synchronize physiological processes to diurnal environmental fluctuations. However, no mechanisms are known to cross-regulate prokaryotic and eukaryotic circadian rhythms in multikingdom ecosystems. Here, we show that the intestinal microbiota, in both mice and humans, exhibits diurnal(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Urocortins are the endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2), which is implicated in regulating energy balance and/or glucose metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic CRFR2 activation on metabolism in vivo, by generating and phenotyping transgenic mice overproducing the specific CRFR2 ligand(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays a major role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and is considered a key mediator of anxiety behavior. The globus pallidus external (GPe), a main relay center within the basal ganglia that is primarily associated with motor and associative functions, is one of(More)
In response to physiological or psychological challenges, the brain activates behavioral and neuroendocrine systems linked to both metabolic and emotional outputs designed to adapt to the demand. However, dysregulation of integration of these physiological responses to challenge can have severe psychological and physiological consequences, and inappropriate(More)
Molecular-level understanding of body weight control is essential for combating obesity. We show that female mice lacking tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (RPTPe) are protected from weight gain induced by high-fat food, ovariectomy, or old age and exhibit increased whole-body energy expenditure and decreased adiposity. RPTPe-deficient mice, in particular males,(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disease, which affects 8-10% of the population exposed to traumatic events. The factors that make certain individuals susceptible to PTSD and others resilient are currently unknown. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) has been implicated in mediating stress coping mechanisms. Here, we(More)
The global increase in rates of obesity has been accompanied by a similar surge in the number of autism diagnoses. Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggest a possible link between overweight and the risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as autism severity. In laboratory animals, several studies have shown a connection between various(More)