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A novel approach was developed to form engineered, electrically viable, neuronal networks, consisting of ganglion-like clusters of neurons. In the present method, the clusters are formed as the cells migrate on low affinity substrate towards high affinity, lithographically defined carbon nanotube templates on which they adhere and assemble. Subsequently,(More)
Department of Bioengineering and Center for Nanotechnology, Box 351721, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, Department of Electrical Engineering, Box 352500, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, Microdevice Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 0603, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, and Biomolecular(More)
We have investigated the use of carbon nanotube coated microelectrodes as an interface material for retinal recording and stimulation applications. Test devices were micro-fabricated and consisted of 60, 30 mum diameter electrodes at spacing of 200 mum. These electrodes were coated via chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes, resulting in conducting,(More)
Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to(More)
Neuro-prosthetic devices aim to restore impaired function through artificial stimulation of the nervous system. A lingering technological bottleneck in this field is the realization of soft, micron sized electrodes capable of injecting enough charge to evoke localized neuronal activity without causing neither electrode nor tissue damage. Direct stimulation(More)
Standard micro-fabrication techniques which were originally developed to fabricate semi-conducting electronic devices were inadvertently found to be adequate for bio-chip fabrication suited for applications such as stimulation and recording from neurons in-vitro as well as in-vivo. However, cell adhesion to conventional micro-chips is poor and chemical(More)
A novel approach is reported for cell patterning based on addressable microheaters and a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) themoresponsive coating. This thermoresponsive coating is created by a radio frequency NIPAM plasma and is denoted as plasma polymerized NIPAM (ppNIPAM). Films of ppNIPAM with a good retention of monomer side-chain functionality are(More)
BACKGROUND Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the network's ability to generate temporal patterns of action potentials. Although the nature of neuronal network activity has been intensively investigated in the past several decades at the individual neuron level, the underlying principles of the collective network activity, such as the(More)
A technique is described for assembly of multiple batches of micro components onto a single substrate. The substrate is prepared with hydrophobic alkanethiol-coated gold binding sites. To perform assembly, a hydrocarbon oil is applied to the substrate and wets exclusively the hydrophobic binding sites in water. Micro components are then added to the water,(More)
We report on a zero magnetic field transport study of a two-dimensional, variable-density, hole system in GaAs. As the density is varied we observe, for the first time in GaAs-based materials, a crossover from an insulating behavior at low density, to a metalliclike behavior at high density, where the metallic behavior is characterized by a large drop in(More)