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Plants possess remarkable ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. The adaptation process involves the removal of many molecules from organelles, especially membranes, and replacing them with new ones. The process is mediated by an intracellular vesicle-trafficking system regulated by phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinases and phosphatases.(More)
Stomatal closure during water stress is a major plant mechanism for reducing the loss of water through leaves. The opening and closure of stomata are mediated by endomembrane trafficking. The role of the vacuolar trafficking pathway, that involves v-SNAREs of the AtVAMP71 family (formerly called AtVAMP7C) in stomatal movements, was analysed. Expression of(More)
Over the last decade, unusually high losses of colonies have been reported by beekeepers across the USA. Multiple factors such as Varroa destructor, bee viruses, Nosema ceranae, weather, beekeeping practices, nutrition, and pesticides have been shown to contribute to colony losses. Here we describe a large-scale controlled trial, in which different bee(More)
CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-kg (33-lb) pregnant female mixed-breed dog of unknown age was referred because of a 10-day history of difficulty breathing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings were dyspnea, tachypnea, decreased bronchovesicular sounds (bilateral), muffled heart sounds, and abdominal distention with palpable fetuses. Hematologic(More)
BACKGROUND Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases (5PTases) that hydrolyze the 5' position of the inositol ring are key components of membrane trafficking system. Recently, we reported that mutation in At5PTase7 gene reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes, resulting in increased salt sensitivity. Here, we(More)
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