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Olfaction is often referred to as a multidimensional sense. It is multidimensional in that approximately 1000 different receptor types, each tuned to particular odor aspects, together contribute to the olfactory percept. In humans, however, this percept is nearly unidimensional. Humans can detect and discriminate countless odorants, but can identify few by(More)
To what extent does emotional traumatic context affect sensory processing in the brain? A striking example of emotional impact on sensation is manifested in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in which a severe emotional trauma produces recurrent and vivid unpleasant sensory recollections. Here we report on an fMRI study exploring the sensory processing(More)
Paradoxically, improvements in emergency medicine have increased survival albeit with severe disability ranging from quadriplegia to "locked-in syndrome." Locked-in syndrome is characterized by intact cognition yet complete paralysis, and hence these individuals are "locked-in" their own body, at best able to communicate using eye blinks alone. Sniffing is(More)
Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed(More)
Olfactory information reaches olfactory cortex without a thalamic relay. This neuroanatomical substrate has combined with functional findings to suggest that, in olfaction, the typical thalamic role in sensory processing has shifted to the olfactory bulb or olfactory cortex. With this in mind, we set out to ask whether the thalamus at all plays a(More)
Authors, poets, and scientists have been fascinated by the strength of childhood olfactory memories. Indeed, in long-term memory, the first odor-to-object association was stronger than subsequent associations of the same odor with other objects. Here we tested the hypothesis that first odor associations enjoy a privileged brain representation. Because(More)
Whether olfactory working memory involves verbal representations or neural images of odor per se remains unclear. This study investigated whether verbal representation influences performance in an olfactory delayed-match-to-sample task and used monorhinal presentation to generate hypotheses as to the underlying anatomy of this mechanism. The main findings(More)
Melatonin, the hormone produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an endogenous regulator of the sleep-wake cycle. The effects of melatonin on brain activities and their relation to induction of sleepiness were studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced(More)
Overnight sleep contributes to memory consolidation; even a short nap improves memory performance. Such improvement has been linked to hippocampal activity during sleep. Melatonin has been shown to affect the human hippocampus and to induce 'sleep like' changes in brain activation. We therefore conducted and compared two functional magnetic resonance(More)
Multi-subject fMRI data is critical for evaluating the generality and validity of findings across subjects, and its effective utilization helps improve analysis sensitivity. We develop a shared response model for aggregating multi-subject fMRI data that accounts for different functional topographies among anatomically aligned datasets. Our model(More)