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The RAG1 endonuclease, together with its cofactor RAG2, is essential for V(D)J recombination but is a potent threat to genome stability. The sources of RAG1 mis-targeting and the mechanisms that have evolved to suppress it are poorly understood. Here, we report that RAG1 associates with chromatin at thousands of active promoters and enhancers in the genome(More)
The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The(More)
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skin-homing T lymphocytes. We performed exome and whole-genome DNA sequencing and RNA sequencing on purified CTCL and matched normal cells. The results implicate mutations in 17 genes in CTCL pathogenesis, including genes involved in T cell activation and apoptosis, NF-κB signaling, chromatin(More)
Incremental selection within a population, defined as limited fitness changes following mutation, is an important aspect of many evolutionary processes. Strongly advantageous or deleterious mutations are detected using the synonymous to non-synonymous mutations ratio. However, there are currently no precise methods to estimate incremental selection. We here(More)
The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination at antigen receptor loci but also binds to thousands of places outside of these loci. RAG2 localizes directly to lysine 4 trimethylated histone 3 (H3K4me3) through a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger. The relative contribution of RAG2-dependent and RAG1-intrinsic mechanisms in determining RAG1 binding(More)
Viral epitopes have a distinct codon usage that reflects their dual role in infection and immunity. On the one hand, epitopes are part of proteins important to viral function; on the other hand, they are targets of the immune response. Studies of selection are most commonly based on changes of amino acid and seen through the accumulation of non-synonymous(More)
The activation induced cytosine deaminase (AID) mediates diversification of B cell immunoglobulin genes by the three distinct yet related processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR), and gene conversion (GCV). SHM occurs in germinal center B cells, and the transcription factor Bcl6 is a key regulator of the germinal center B(More)
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