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CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, expressed on a wide range of cell types including B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD40 is the receptor for CD40 ligand (CD40L), a molecule predominantly expressed by activated CD4(+) T cells. CD40/CD40L interaction induces the formation of memory B lymphocytes and promotes Ig(More)
Conformational heterogeneity in proteins is known to often be the key to their function. We present a coarse grained model to explore the interplay between protein structure, folding and function which is applicable to allosteric or non-allosteric proteins. We employ the model to study the detailed mechanism of the reversible conformational transition of(More)
Protein recognition and binding, which result in either transient or long-lived complexes, play a fundamental role in many biological functions, but sometimes also result in pathologic aggregates. We use a simplified simulation model to survey a range of systems where two highly flexible protein chains form a homodimer. In all cases, this model, which(More)
Water is essential for life in many ways, and without it biomolecules might no longer truly be biomolecules. In particular, water is important to the structure, stability, dynamics, and function of biological macromolecules. In protein folding, water mediates the collapse of the chain and the search for the native topology through a funneled energy(More)
Efficient search of DNA by proteins is fundamental to the control of cellular regulatory processes. It is currently believed that protein sliding, hopping, and transfer between adjacent DNA segments, during which the protein nonspecifically interacts with DNA, are central to the speed of their specific recognition. In this study, we focused on the(More)
The remarkable efficiency and specificity of protein-DNA recognition presents many theoretical puzzles given the size of the genome and the large number of molecular species in vivo. Another aspect of protein-DNA interactions, not less perplexing than the high specificity of recognition, is the rapidity with which the DNA target sequence is recognized.(More)
PURPOSE We sought to assess the indications for patient referral for computed tomography (CT) scan before third molar extraction. The influence of the data obtained from the CT scans on the surgical outcome and morbidity was also evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS There were 189 patients in the study (120 females and 69 males). Sixty-five patients were(More)
The search through nonspecific DNA for a specific site by proteins is known to be facilitated by sliding, hopping, and intersegment transfer between separate DNA strands, yet the driving forces of these protein dynamics from the molecular perspective are unclear. In this study, molecular features of the DNA search mechanism were explored for three(More)
HIV-1 protease (PR) is a major drug target in combating AIDS, as it plays a key role in maturation and replication of the virus. Six FDA-approved drugs are currently in clinical use, all designed to inhibit enzyme activity by blocking the active site, which exists only in the dimer. An alternative inhibition mode would be required to overcome the emergence(More)
Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications to occur in protein biosynthesis, yet its effect on the thermodynamics and kinetics of proteins is poorly understood. A minimalist model based on the native protein topology, in which each amino acid and sugar ring was represented by a single bead, was used to study the effect of(More)