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As economically relevant traits, feeding behavior and food preference domestication determine production cost and profitability. Although there are intensive research efforts on feeding behavior and food intake, little is known about food preference. Mandarin fish accept only live prey fish and refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets. Very little is(More)
Although melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are the cause of the most common monogenic form of obesity, the involvement of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) in the pathogenesis of obesity is unknown. Earlier studies failed to identify any mutations in obese patients except for the identification of two variants (K6T and I81V) that likely represent(More)
The neural melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), have been shown to regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis in rodents. Human genetic studies showed that mutations in the MC4R gene are the most common monogenic form of obesity. Functional analyses of the mutant receptors revealed multiple defects. A classification(More)
As the most common monogenic form of human obesity, about 130 naturally occurring melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene mutations have been identified. In this study, we reported detailed functional characterization of 10 novel human MC4R (hMC4R) mutants including R7C, C84R, S127L, S136F, W174C, A219V, P230L, F261S, I317V and L325F. Flow cytometry experiments(More)
The two neural melanocortin receptors (MCRs), melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), are G protein-coupled receptors expressed primarily in the brain that regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis. The MCRs are unique in having endogenous antagonists, agouti and agouti-related protein (AgRP). These antagonists were later shown to be inverse(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis. Defects in MC4R are the most common monogenic form of obesity, with about 170 distinct mutations identified in human. In addition to the conventional Gs-stimulated adenylyl cyclase pathway, it has been recently demonstrated that(More)
It is controversial whether mutation in the melancortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene is a cause for monogenic obesity in humans. Three novel mutations in the MC3R, A293T, I335S, and X361S, were identified from morbidly obese subjects. We investigated whether these mutations caused loss-of-function and the molecular defects if any. Ligand binding, signaling, and(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the potential long-term metabolic effects of early nutritional programming on carbohydrate utilisation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). High-carbohydrate diets were fed to fish during four ontogenetic stages: from the first-feeding stage to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage; from the first-feeding stage to 2(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critical in regulating mammalian food intake and energy expenditure. Numerous mutations in the MC4R gene have been identified from obese humans. So far two naturally occurring porcine MC4R (pMC4R) mutations, D298N and R236H, have been identified from various strains of pigs and D298N is being utilized as a genetic(More)
Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass(More)