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As economically relevant traits, feeding behavior and food preference domestication determine production cost and profitability. Although there are intensive research efforts on feeding behavior and food intake, little is known about food preference. Mandarin fish accept only live prey fish and refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets. Very little is(More)
Although melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are the cause of the most common monogenic form of obesity, the involvement of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) in the pathogenesis of obesity is unknown. Earlier studies failed to identify any mutations in obese patients except for the identification of two variants (K6T and I81V) that likely represent(More)
The neural melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), have been shown to regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis in rodents. Human genetic studies showed that mutations in the MC4R gene are the most common monogenic form of obesity. Functional analyses of the mutant receptors revealed multiple defects. A classification(More)
As the most common monogenic form of human obesity, about 130 naturally occurring melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene mutations have been identified. In this study, we reported detailed functional characterization of 10 novel human MC4R (hMC4R) mutants including R7C, C84R, S127L, S136F, W174C, A219V, P230L, F261S, I317V and L325F. Flow cytometry experiments(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis. Defects in MC4R are the most common monogenic form of obesity, with about 170 distinct mutations identified in human. In addition to the conventional Gs-stimulated adenylyl cyclase pathway, it has been recently demonstrated that(More)
The two neural melanocortin receptors (MCRs), melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), are G protein-coupled receptors expressed primarily in the brain that regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis. The MCRs are unique in having endogenous antagonists, agouti and agouti-related protein (AgRP). These antagonists were later shown to be inverse(More)
Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a Family A G protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis, including both energy intake and expenditure. Mutations leading to a reduced MC4R function confer a major gene effect for obesity. More than 170 distinct mutations have been identified in humans. In addition to the(More)
BACKGROUND In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects with loss-of-function (LOF) and(More)
Although mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene cause severe early-onset obesity, we still do not have effective approaches to correct the defects of these mutations. Several antagonists have been identified as pharmacoperones of the MC4R whereas no agonist of the MC4R has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a(More)