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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a highly proinflammatory molecule isolated from bacteria. This study demonstrated the existence of LPS in a medicinal fungus, Antrodia camphorata. Because no LPS had been identified in any fungus organism, the purification of LPS from A. camphorata was attempted. LPSs from six strains of A. camphorata (35396, 35398, 35716, B71,(More)
Although various pharmacological activities of the shikonins have been documented, understanding the hierarchical regulation of these diverse bioactivities at the genome level is unsubstantiated. In this study, through cross examination between transcriptome and microRNA array analyses, we predicted that topical treatment of shikonin in vivo affects(More)
The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein controls multiple tumour suppressive functions and is downregulated in diverse types of human cancers through incompletely characterized post-translational mechanisms. Here we identify USP11 as a PML regulator by RNAi screening. USP11 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PML, thereby counteracting the functions of PML(More)
Bacillus cereus G9241, the causative agent of anthrax-like disease, harbors virulence plasmids encoding anthrax toxins as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) and B. cereus exopolysaccharide (BPS) capsules. B. cereus G9241 also harbors S-layer genes, including homologs of Bacillus anthracis surface array protein (Sap), extractable antigen 1 (EA1), and the(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, which manifests as surgical site infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. Due to drug-resistance, prophylaxis of MRSA infection with antibiotics frequently fails or incites nosocomial diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection. Sortase A is a(More)
Peritoneal and pleural resident macrophages in the mouse share common features and in each compartment exist as two distinct subpopulations: F4/80(+) macrophages and MHC II(+) CD11c(+) macrophages. F4/80(+) macrophages derive from embryonic precursors, and their maintenance is controlled by Gata6. However, the origin and regulatory factors that maintain MHC(More)
The envelope of Bacillus anthracis encompasses a proteinaceous S-layer with two S-layer proteins (Sap and EA1). Protein assembly in the envelope of B. anthracis requires S-layer homology domains (SLH) within S-layer proteins and S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs), which associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), an acetylated carbohydrate(More)
Disulfiram (DSF) possesses anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. DSF also potently inhibits angiogenesis, but the effect of Cu on this anti-angiogenic activity is unknown. Here we show that DSF inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, adhesion and complex tube formation of human umbilical(More)
In Trichomonas vaginalis, a Myb1 protein was previously demonstrated to repress transcription of an iron-inducible ap65-1 gene. In this study, a human cyclophilin A homologue, TvCyclophilin 1 (TvCyP1), was identified as a Myb1-binding protein using a bacterial two-hybrid library screening system. The recombinant TvCyP1 exhibited typical peptidyl-prolyl(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, forms an S-layer atop its peptidoglycan envelope and displays S-layer proteins and Bacillus S-layer-associated (BSL) proteins with specific functions to support cell separation of vegetative bacilli and growth in infected mammalian hosts. S-layer and BSL proteins bind via the S-layer homology (SLH) domain(More)