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Autophagy is a major cellular pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. A large number of intracellular/extracellular stimuli, including amino acid starvation and invasion of microorganisms, are able to induce the autophagic response in cells. The discovery of the ATG genes in yeast has greatly(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Paeoniflorin (PF) is the principal bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PF on MPP(+)- or acid- (pH 5.0) induced injury in(More)
The role of astrocytes in microglia-induced neuronal death remains controversial. In this study, astrocytes and astrocyte-derived conditioned media (ACM) supported the survival of dopaminergic neurons, and the former was more effective than the latter. In the presence of astrocytes, low concentrations of LPS enhanced the survival of dopaminergic neurons,(More)
Comparative mapping data on evolutionary conserved coding sequences and synteny maps between human and cattle are insufficient to define the extent and distribution of conserved segments between these two species, because the order of loci is often rearranged. A 5000-rad cattle whole-genome radiation hybrid (WG-RH) panel was constructed to provide(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that dynein has an important role in the clearance of misfolded proteins by autophagy. Here we show that treatment of cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) cause alpha-synuclein overexpression and aggregation, leading to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the recruitment of LC3-II to these vacuoles in the(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system, by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome. As a quality control mechanism for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, autophagy plays important roles in a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and(More)
The genetic background and the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been fully elucidated. Two missense mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene, A30P and A53T, have been linked to familial PD. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of alpha-synuclein, the dopamine transporter (DAT), and neurotoxins in the pathogenesis of PD, but(More)
Previous studies reported that the neurotoxin, Crotoxin, isolated from the venom of South American rattlesnake had potent anti-tumor activity. Here, we investigated the involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in the Crotoxin-induced death of chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells. The neurotoxin dose dependently inhibited the viability of K562 cells.(More)
AIM To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge. METHODS A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis,(More)
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque rupture by promoting lipid accumulation, proinflammatory responses, and cell death. LDL is mainly oxidized in the subendothelial layer of the vascular wall and then can be taken up by vascular endothelial cells. However, little is known(More)