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Autophagy is a major cellular pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. A large number of intracellular/extracellular stimuli, including amino acid starvation and invasion of microorganisms, are able to induce the autophagic response in cells. The discovery of the ATG genes in yeast has greatly(More)
The role of astrocytes in microglia-induced neuronal death remains controversial. In this study, astrocytes and astrocyte-derived conditioned media (ACM) supported the survival of dopaminergic neurons, and the former was more effective than the latter. In the presence of astrocytes, low concentrations of LPS enhanced the survival of dopaminergic neurons,(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Paeoniflorin (PF) is the principal bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PF on MPP(+)- or acid- (pH 5.0) induced injury in(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system, by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome. As a quality control mechanism for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, autophagy plays important roles in a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that dynein has an important role in the clearance of misfolded proteins by autophagy. Here we show that treatment of cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) cause alpha-synuclein overexpression and aggregation, leading to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the recruitment of LC3-II to these vacuoles in the(More)
Previous studies reported that the neurotoxin, Crotoxin, isolated from the venom of South American rattlesnake had potent anti-tumor activity. Here, we investigated the involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in the Crotoxin-induced death of chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells. The neurotoxin dose dependently inhibited the viability of K562 cells.(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the recurrence pattern and characteristics of patients based on the 2013 St. Gallen surrogate molecular subtypes after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in Chinese women. METHODS This retrospective analysis included 709 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing BCS from 1999-2010 at our institution.(More)
The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP(+))-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP(+) treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability,(More)
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque rupture by promoting lipid accumulation, proinflammatory responses, and cell death. LDL is mainly oxidized in the subendothelial layer of the vascular wall and then can be taken up by vascular endothelial cells. However, little is known(More)
Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) are catalytically self-sufficient flavo-heme enzymes that generate NO from arginine (Arg) and display a novel utilization of their tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) cofactor. During Arg hydroxylation, H(4)B acts as a one-electron donor and is then presumed to redox cycle (i.e. be reduced back to H(4)B) within NOS before further(More)