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The role of astrocytes in microglia-induced neuronal death remains controversial. In this study, astrocytes and astrocyte-derived conditioned media (ACM) supported the survival of dopaminergic neurons, and the former was more effective than the latter. In the presence of astrocytes, low concentrations of LPS enhanced the survival of dopaminergic neurons,(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system, by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome. As a quality control mechanism for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, autophagy plays important roles in a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that dynein has an important role in the clearance of misfolded proteins by autophagy. Here we show that treatment of cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) cause alpha-synuclein overexpression and aggregation, leading to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the recruitment of LC3-II to these vacuoles in the(More)
The genetic background and the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been fully elucidated. Two missense mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene, A30P and A53T, have been linked to familial PD. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of alpha-synuclein, the dopamine transporter (DAT), and neurotoxins in the pathogenesis of PD, but(More)
The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP(+))-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP(+) treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability,(More)
y These two authors contributed equally to this work. Autophagy dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). BECN1/Beclin 1 acts as a critical regulator of autophagy and other cellular processes; yet, little is known about the function and regulation of BECN1 in PD. In this study, we report that dopamine D2 and D3 receptor (DRD2(More)
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are ligand-gated cation channels that respond to acidic stimuli. They are expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system. Complex subunit combinations and lack of specific blockers of native receptors result in the difficulty of resolving the functions of ASICs. In this study, we showed that rat pheochromocytoma cells(More)
AIM A growing body of evidence suggests that α-synuclein accumulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the proteasome and autophagy pathways in the clearance of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein in PC12 cells. METHODS PC12 cells overexpressing either wild-type or(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), inducing and accelerating dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. Autophagy, a critical mechanism for clearing misfolded or aggregated proteins such as α-synuclein (α-SYN), may affect DA neuron survival in the midbrain. However, whether autophagy contributes to(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Its causes and mechanisms are not clearly understood. To explore the specific role of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in apoptosis, a specific proteasome inhibitor and macroautophagy inhibitor and stimulator were selected to investigate pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell(More)