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The cAMP cascade, including the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), is known to play an important role in neuronal survival and plasticity. Here the influence of this cascade on neurogenesis in adult hippocampus was determined. Activation of the cAMP cascade by administration of rolipram, an inhibitor of cAMP breakdown, increased the proliferation(More)
BACKGROUND The initiation of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and other psychomotor stimulants is thought to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry. The importance of drug induced NMDAR mediated adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons, and its association with(More)
Persephin (Pspn), a recently cloned member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (TGF-beta) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) subfamily, is distributed throughout the nervous system at extremely low levels and is thought to function as a survival factor for midbrain dopaminergic and spinal motor neurons in vivo. Here, we(More)
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is highly expressed in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral mesencephalon and regulates neurotransmission by transporting DA back into the presynaptic terminals. To mediate restricted DNA recombination events into DA neurons(More)
The widespread distribution of the tumor suppressor PTEN in the nervous system suggests a role in a broad range of brain functions. PTEN negatively regulates the signaling pathways initiated by protein kinase B (Akt) thereby regulating signals for growth, proliferation and cell survival. Pten deletion in the mouse brain has revealed its role in controlling(More)
Clinical trials in Parkinson's disease have shown that transplants of embryonic mesencephalic dopamine neurons form new functional connections within the host striatum, but the therapeutic benefits have been highly variable. One obstacle has been poor survival and integration of grafted dopamine neurons. Activation of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that NADPH oxidase mediating the ROS production is the major pathway for ROS generation in neutrophils during exercise. NADPH oxidase, as a target can modulate oxidative damage induced by overtraining, which can be value to the prevention of exercise-induced immunosuppression. METHODS Thirty male(More)
The most often used tetracycline-regulated transgenic mice system requires the generation of two transgenic strains, one carrying an inducible promoter and the other a transactivator. In this study, we report the design of a universal and simplified regulatory gene delivery vector to facilitate the generation of conditional transgenic animals that integrate(More)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are double-stranded RNAs of approximately 19-29 nucleotides designed to suppress the expression of homologous genes by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). In this study we have characterized several short interfering RNAs to reduce (knockdown) the expression of genes related to the dopaminergic system of the ventral(More)
A real-time quantitative PCR approach was used to quantify mRNA levels corresponding to the neuropeptides enkephalin, dynorphin, and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in the human putamen from young and aged individuals as well as from aged patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). cDNA-specific primers were designed to amplify(More)