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The three-dimensional structures of avian H5 and swine H9 influenza hemagglutinins (HAs) from viruses closely related to those that caused outbreaks of human disease in Hong Kong in 1997 and 1999 were determined bound to avian and human cell receptor analogs. Emerging influenza pandemics have been accompanied by the evolution of receptor-binding specificity(More)
Escherichia coli GlpG is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the widespread rhomboid protease family. Rhomboid proteases, like site-2 protease (S2P) and gamma-secretase, are unique in that they cleave the transmembrane domain of other membrane proteins. Here we describe the 2.1 A resolution crystal structure of the GlpG core domain. This structure(More)
The 1918 influenza pandemic resulted in about 20 million deaths. This enormous impact, coupled with renewed interest in emerging infections, makes characterization of the virus involved a priority. Receptor binding, the initial event in virus infection, is a major determinant of virus transmissibility that, for influenza viruses, is mediated by the(More)
We have determined the structure of the HA of an avian influenza virus, A/duck/Ukraine/63, a member of the same antigenic subtype, H3, as the virus that caused the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic, and a possible progenitor of the pandemic virus. We find that structurally significant differences between the avian and the human HAs are restricted to the(More)
The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4(More)
There are 15 subtypes of influenza A virus (H1-H15), all of which are found in avian species. Three caused pandemics in the last century: H1 in 1918 (and 1977), H2 in 1957 and H3 in 1968. In 1997, an H5 avian virus and in 1999 an H9 virus caused outbreaks of respiratory disease in Hong Kong. We have determined the three-dimensional structures of the(More)
Amyloid beta-peptide, which forms neuronal and vascular amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease, is derived from an integral membrane protein precursor. The biological function of the precursor is currently unclear. Here we describe the X-ray structure of E2, the largest of the three conserved domains of the precursor. The structure of E2 consists of two(More)
The active sites of intramembrane proteases are positioned in the lipid bilayer to facilitate peptide bond hydrolysis in the membrane. Previous crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coli GlpG, an intramembrane protease of the rhomboid family, has revealed an internal and hydrophilic active site in an apparently closed conformation. Here we describe the(More)
Comparing the structures of H3, H5 and H9 subtype haemagglutinins, we deduced a structural basis for including all 15 influenza subtypes in four clades. H3, H5 and H9 represent three of these clades; we now report the structure of an H7 HA as a representative of the fourth clade. We confirm the structure of the turn at the N-terminus of the conserved(More)
  • Ya Ha
  • Seminars in cell & developmental biology
  • 2009
Many functionally important membrane proteins are cleaved within their transmembrane helices to become activated. This unusual reaction is catalyzed by a group of highly specialized and membrane-bound proteases. Here I briefly summarize current knowledge about their structure and mechanism, with a focus on the rhomboid family. It has now become clear that(More)