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BACKGROUND Genetic studies of populations from the Indian subcontinent are of great interest because of India's large population size, complex demographic history, and unique social structure. Despite recent large-scale efforts in discovering human genetic variation, India's vast reservoir of genetic diversity remains largely unexplored. RESULTS To(More)
The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan highlanders and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover(More)
Acute pancreatitis, a common necroinflammatory disease of the pancreas, remains an unsolved problem that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intra-acinar cell activation of digestion enzymes triggers the events of acute pancreatitis and stimulates the production of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory cytokines trigger(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene are associated with chemosensitivity to nucleoside analogs. 2',2'-Difluoro 2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine) is a first-line nucleoside analog drug in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, the association between SNPs in the dCK gene and chemosensitivity to(More)
BACKGROUND The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) and its receptor are present in the tumor microenvironment. Their function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to measure the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R in PDAC and assess their relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis. (More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical feature and treatment strategy of primary pancreatic lymphoma. METHODS Thirty-nine cases of primary pancreatic lymphoma reported in China were reviewed retrospectively with their clinical characters, treatment, and outcome, as well as a literature review of worldwide reports. RESULTS The major clinical presentations(More)
Introgressions from Neanderthals and Denisovans were detected in modern humans. Introgressions from other archaic hominins were also implicated, however, identification of which poses a great technical challenge. Here, we introduced an approach in identifying introgressions from all possible archaic hominins in Eurasian genomes, without referring to archaic(More)
Studies of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes demonstrate archaic hominin introgression in Eurasians. Here, we present evidence of Neanderthal introgression within the chromosome 3p21.31 region, occurring with a high frequency in East Asians (ranging from 49.4% to 66.5%) and at a low frequency in Europeans. We also detected a signal of strong positive(More)
CD4(+) T cells stimulate immune responses through distinct patterns of cytokine produced by Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells, or inhibit immune responses through Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Paradoxically, effector T cells were recently shown to activate Tregs, however, it remains unclear which Th subset is responsible for this effect. In this study,(More)