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Systemic nicotine stimulates dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) appear to be involved. However, it is not known whether the secretion of DA elicited by nicotine depends on the tonic and/or phasic activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate (Glu). To clarify this,(More)
A gene related to cell differentiation was identified by differential display as a candidate suppressor of metastases in colon cancer. This gene, with a full-length cDNA of 3 kb, is expressed in normal colon and primary colon cancer tissues and cell lines but not in their metastatic counterparts. A GenBank search found that it is identical to a recently(More)
Norepinephrine (NE) secretion within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is pivotal to endocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of NE afferents to PVN also is necessary for the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to passively administered nicotine. The mode of drug delivery is a critical determinant of the dynamics of(More)
Previous studies have shown that nicotine stimulates norepinephrine (NE) release in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which in turn activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, nicotine induced NE release in the amygdala (AMYG) and the hippocampus (HP) of the same rat in vivo. Nicotine (0.065-0.135 mg/kg i.v. at a rate(More)
Nicotine has been shown to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of the stress-responsive hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin. This paper reviews the findings by our laboratory and others that demonstrate the polysynaptic pathways involved in the neuroendocrine responses to systemic nicotine. It will focus primarily on the(More)
The Candida albicans PLB1 gene was cloned using a polymerase chain reaction-based approach relying on degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed according to the amino acid sequences of two peptide fragments obtained from a purified candidal enzyme displaying phospholipase activity (Mirbod, F., Banno, Y., Ghannoum, M. A., Ibrahim, A. S., Nakashima, S.,(More)
Extracellular phospholipases are demonstrated virulence factors for a number of pathogenic microbes. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is known to secrete phospholipases and these have been correlated with strain virulence. In an attempt to clone C. albicans genes encoding secreted phospholipases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with a C.(More)
In order to determine the prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in semi-nomadic traditional pastoralist groups in north-west China, 2 large community studies were undertaken in Altai and Tacheng Prefectures in 1990/91 and 1995/96, respectively. The Kekergash community (Altai) comprised mainly ethnic Kazakhs, whereas the Narenhebuke community(More)
KamLAND has measured the flux of nu;(e)'s from distant nuclear reactors. We find fewer nu;(e) events than expected from standard assumptions about nu;(e) propagation at the 99.95% C.L. In a 162 ton.yr exposure the ratio of the observed inverse beta-decay events to the expected number without nu;(e) disappearance is 0.611+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.041(syst) for(More)
Orexins are two recently discovered neuropeptides that can stimulate food intake. As the chronic use of tobacco typically leads to a reduction in body weight, it is of interest to determine whether nicotine, the major biologically active tobacco ingredient, has an effect on orexin metabolism in the brain. Using a semiquantitative RT-PCR technique, the(More)