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While there is a developing understanding of the influence of sleep on cardiovascular autonomic activity in humans, there remain unresolved issues. In particular, the effect of time within the sleep period, independent of sleep stage, has not been investigated. Further, the influence of sleep on central sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is uncertain(More)
To assess the separate contributions of the sleep and circadian systems to changes in cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, 12 supine subjects participated in two 26-h constant routines, which were counterbalanced and separated by 1 wk. One routine did not permit sleep, whereas the second allowed the subjects to sleep during their normal sleep(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, laparoscopic colorectal surgery using a single incision usually made at the umbilical area has emerged as a tool to minimize the numbers of scars and provide better cosmetic results. But experience in laparoscopic skills is needed to maintain the oncologic principles of colorectal cancer surgery with the restricted operating field(More)
Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are influenced by the sleep-wake cycle, with relatively abrupt falls occurring in association with sleep onset (SO). However, the pattern and rate of fall in BP and HR during SO and the processes that contribute to the fall in these variables have not been fully identified. Continuous BP and HR recordings were(More)
Ventilation decreases at sleep onset. This change is initiated abruptly at alpha-theta electroencephalographic transitions. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of reduced activity in respiratory pump muscles and upper airway dilator muscles to this change. Surface electromyograms over the diaphragm (Di) and intercostal muscles and(More)
In normal young men, there is an abrupt fall in ventilation (VE), a rise in upper airway resistance (UAR), and falls in the activities of the diaphragm (Di), intercostals (IC), genioglossus (GG), and tensor palatini (TP) at sleep onset. On waking, there is an abrupt increase in VE and fall in UAR and an increase in the activities of Di, IC, GG, and TP. The(More)
Previous research has found that cardiac parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity increases and cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity decreases during night-time sleep. This study aimed to examine in greater detail the time course of these changes in cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. In the week prior to the experimental(More)
Ventilation is lower during sleep than wakefulness. An increase in airway resistance has been proposed as the critical factor. As the change in ventilation has been shown to occur abruptly at transitions between alpha and theta electroencephalogram activity, it was of interest to determine whether the increase in airway resistance between wakefulness and(More)
Ventilation (V) decreases during sleep while upper airway resistance (UAR) increases. A number of studies have suggested that in normal healthy individuals the changes in the two variables are reciprocal. Other findings, however, suggest that the relationship between V and UAR may change as non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep progresses such that most of(More)
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) activity increases while Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) activity remains relatively stable from wakefulness to NREM sleep. However, it is not clear whether these changes are specifically associated with NREM sleep, or whether they anticipate sleep onset. The latter may occur if ANS activity was influenced by the(More)