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The neuronal architecture of the mushroom body provides a logic for associative learning
The elucidation of the complement of neurons of the MB provides a comprehensive anatomical substrate from which one can infer a functional logic of associative olfactory learning and memory.
MicroRNA-Mediated Control of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation
It is illustrated that miRNAs are important regulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, providing new targets for myelin repair by selectively deleting a miRNA-processing enzyme in oligodendedrocytes of spinal cord mice lacking Dicer1.
Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal
It is found that starvation-sensitive AGRP neurons exhibit properties consistent with a negative-valence teaching signal, and these need-sensing neurons condition preference for environmental cues associated with nutrient or water ingestion, which is learned through reduction of negative-Valence signals during restoration of homeostasis.
miR-146a controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice
By suppressing expression of TRAF6 and IRAK1, miR-146a regulates NF-κB activation in T cells through a negative feedback loop and controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice.
11&bgr;-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Activity in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Sympathetic Excitation
The present studies suggest that MR in PVN contribute to sympathetic regulation and may be activated by aldosterone or corticosterone (or cortisol in humans) depending on the state of 11&bgr;-HSD-2 activity.
Evidence that microRNAs are associated with translating messenger RNAs in human cells
Subcellular distribution of three miRNAs in exponentially growing HeLa cells is examined and several lines of evidence indicate that most of these mRNAs, including a known miRNA-regulated target (KRAS mRNA), are actively being translated.
Transforming growth factor β regulates the sphere-initiating stem cell-like feature in breast cancer through miRNA-181 and ATM
Exposure to TGF-β increased the population of breast cancer cells that can form mammospheres in suspension, a feature endowed by stem cells, providing insights into the cellular and environmental factors regulating CSCs, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells.
PPM1A and PPM1B act as IKKbeta phosphatases to terminate TNFalpha-induced IKKbeta-NF-kappaB activation.
PPM1A and PPM1B play an important role in the termination of TNFalpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation through dephosphorylating and inactivating IKKbeta.
Lysine 63-linked Polyubiquitination of TAK1 at Lysine 158 Is Required for Tumor Necrosis Factor α- and Interleukin-1β-induced IKK/NF-κB and JNK/AP-1 Activation*
These findings demonstrate that Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TAK1 at Lys158 is essential for its own kinase activation and its ability to mediate its downstream signal transduction pathways in response to TNFα and IL-1β stimulation.
mGRASP enables mapping mammalian synaptic connectivity with light microscopy
By integrating molecular and cellular approaches with a computational strategy for the three-dimensional reconstruction of neurons, mGRASP was applied to both long-range circuits and local microcircuits in the mouse hippocampus and thalamocortical regions, analyzing synaptic distribution in single neurons and in dendritic compartments.