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Directed differentiation of telencephalic precursors from embryonic stem cells
We demonstrate directed differentiation of telencephalic precursors from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using optimized serum-free suspension culture (SFEB culture). Treatment with Wnt and NodalExpand
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A new amyloid β variant favoring oligomerization in Alzheimer's‐type dementia
Soluble oligomers of amyloid β (Aβ), rather than amyloid fibrils, have been proposed to initiate synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no direct evidenceExpand
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Endothelial cells of the rat brain vasculature express cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in response to systemic interleukin-1β: a possible site of prostaglandin synthesis responsible for fever
We previously showed that intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA in as yet unidentified cells of blood vessels and leptomeninges in the rat brain andExpand
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Induction by lipopolysaccharide of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in rat brain; its possible role in the febrile response
Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a newly discovered isoform of cyclooxygenase that is inducible by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines. This enzyme is considered to play a major role in inflammatoryExpand
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Mechanisms underlying fatigue: a voxel-based morphometric study of chronic fatigue syndrome
BackgroundFatigue is a crucial sensation that triggers rest, yet its underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Intense long-term fatigue is a symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is usedExpand
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Multi‐directional differentiation of doublecortin‐ and NG2‐immunopositive progenitor cells in the adult rat neocortex in vivo
In the adult mammalian brain, multipotent stem or progenitor cells involved in reproduction of neurons and glial cells have been well investigated only in very restricted regions; the subventricularExpand
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A Genetic Approach to Visualization of Multisynaptic Neural Pathways Using Plant Lectin Transgene
The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces aExpand
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Unique expression patterns of 5‐HT2A and 5‐HT2C receptors in the rat brain during postnatal development: Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses
Serotonin (5‐HT) is recognized as a potential regulatory factor in neuronal development. Two subtypes of receptors for it, 5‐HT2A and 5‐HT2C, are distributed broadly in the rat brain, suggestingExpand
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Neuroprotection by MAPK/ERK kinase inhibition with U0126 against oxidative stress in a mouse neuronal cell line and rat primary cultured cortical neurons
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. We investigated theExpand
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Neuroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: An 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET Study
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Although it is hypothesized that brain inflammation isExpand
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