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Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response, and a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family is found.
Global Dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Serotype O3:K6 and Its Serovariants
TLDR
This review traces the genesis, virulence features, molecular characteristics, serotype variants, environmental occurrence, and global spread of this unique clone of V. parahaemolyticus that has now spread into Asia, America, Africa, and Europe.
Emergence of a unique O3:K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Calcutta, India, and isolation of strains from the same clonal group from Southeast Asian travelers arriving in Japan
TLDR
The results suggest that this unique O3:K6 clone may have become prevalent not only in Calcutta but also in Southeast Asian countries very recently.
Detection of urovirulence factors in Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
TLDR
The multiplex PCR developed was concluded to be a useful, sensitive and rapid assay system to identify uropathogenic E. coli in patients with simple acute cystitis.
Cholera Due to Altered El Tor Strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh
TLDR
All of the El Tor strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated since 2001 produced CT of the classical biotype, while those isolated before 2001 producedCT of theEl Tor biotype.
Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139.
TLDR
All the 38 stool samples positive for either O1 or O139 serogroup by PCR assay were also positive for the ctxA amplicon indicating that the O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains have the genetic potential of producing cholera toxin.
Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Gene, and Molecular Profiles of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Diverse Sources in Calcutta, India
TLDR
It appears that the clones present in bovine sources are not transmitted to humans in the Calcutta setting although these strains showed evolutionary relatedness, and STEC has still not become a major problem in India.
Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains.
The upsurge in worldwide incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the last 5 years has been attributed to the recent appearance of three serotypes with pandemic potential: O3:K6, O4:K68, and
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