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Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Shc-dependent Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activation via Grb2-associated p85 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by activating both MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Vascular smooth muscle cellsExpand
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Insulin-like Growth Factor-I-stimulated Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Negatively Regulates Src Homology 2 Domain-containing Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Substrate-1 Function in Vascular Smooth Muscle
Vascular smooth muscle cells maintained in normal (5.6 mm) glucose respond to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with increased protein synthesis but do not proliferate. In contrast, hyperglycemiaExpand
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Aldosterone enhances IGF-I-mediated signaling and biological function in vascular smooth muscle cells.
The IGF-I pathway and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis are both involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis, but no information is available about IGF-I and aldosteroneExpand
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Characterization and functions of beta defensins in the epididymis.
The epididymal beta-defensins have evolved by repeated gene duplication and divergence to encode a family of proteins that provide direct protection against pathogens and also support the maleExpand
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Novel Aspects of the Sperm-Associated Antigen 11 (SPAG11) Gene Organization and Expression in Cattle (Bos taurus)1
Abstract Beta-defensins are small cationic peptides exhibiting broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. In humans, many beta-defensin genes are located within a cluster on chromosome 8p23. The spermExpand
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Igf-I signaling in response to hyperglycemia and the development of diabetic complications.
IGF-I is structurally related to proinsulin and when administered to human subjects it enhances insulin sensitivity. However because of its growth promoting properties and its relationship to growthExpand
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Identification, cloning and functional characterization of novel beta-defensins in the rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Backgroundbeta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the maleExpand
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The androgen-regulated epididymal sperm-binding protein, human beta-defensin 118 (DEFB118) (formerly ESC42), is an antimicrobial beta-defensin.
Spermatozoa bind a variety of proteins as they pass through the proximal regions of the epididymis, where they acquire forward motility and fertilizing ability. Recent evidence indicates that certainExpand
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Identification, characterization, and evolution of a primate β-defensin gene cluster
Defensins are members of a large diverse family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that share a signature pattern consisting of six conserved cysteine residues. Defensins have a wide variety ofExpand
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Novel Partners of SPAG11B Isoform D in the Human Male Reproductive Tract1
Human sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is closely related to beta-defensins in structure, expression, and function. Like the beta-defensins, SPAG11 proteins are predominantly expressed in theExpand
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