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LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the rat microtubule‐associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a homologue of Apg8p essential for autophagy in yeast, is associated to the autophagosome membranes after processing.
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
TLDR
The molecular mechanism of autophagosome formation is described with particular focus on the function of Atg proteins and the long-standing discussion regarding the origin of the autophagous membrane membrane.
In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker.
TLDR
The results suggest that the regulation of autophagy is organ dependent and the role of Aut7/Apg8 is not restricted to the starvation response, and this transgenic mouse model is a useful tool to study mammalian autophagic regulation.
The role of autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period
TLDR
The results suggest that the production of amino acids by autophagic degradation of ‘self’ proteins, which allows for the maintenance of energy homeostasis, is important for survival during neonatal starvation.
Impairment of starvation-induced and constitutive autophagy in Atg7-deficient mice
TLDR
Conditional knockout mice of Atg7 were generated and showed the important role of autophagy in starvation response and the quality control of proteins and organelles in quiescent cells.
A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation
TLDR
A new mode of protein lipidation is reported, in which Apg8 is covalently conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine through an amide bond between the C-terminal glycine and the amino group of phosph atidyleanolamine, mediated by a ubiquitination-like system.
Tor-Mediated Induction of Autophagy via an Apg1 Protein Kinase Complex
TLDR
It is shown that the protein kinase activity of Apg1 is enhanced by starvation or rapamycin treatment, and it is found that Apg13, which binds to and activates ApG1, is hyperphosphorylated in a Tor-dependent manner, reducing its affinity to Apg 1.
A protein conjugation system essential for autophagy
TLDR
It is shown here that a unique covalent-modification system is essential for autophagy to occur, the first report of a protein unrelated to ubiquitin that uses a ubiquitination-like conjugation system.
The Reversible Modification Regulates the Membrane-Binding State of Apg8/Aut7 Essential for Autophagy and the Cytoplasm to Vacuole Targeting Pathway
TLDR
It is shown here that the nature of the association of Apg8 with membranes changes depending on a series of modifications of the protein itself, which appears to be coupled to the membrane dynamics of autophagy and the Cvt pathway.
Two Distinct Vps34 Phosphatidylinositol 3–Kinase Complexes Function in Autophagy and Carboxypeptidase Y Sorting inSaccharomyces cerevisiae
TLDR
Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that two distinct Vps34 PtdIns 3–kinase complexes exist: one, containing Vps15p, Vps30p, and Apg14p, functions in autophagy and the other containing VPS15 p, VPS30 p, and Vps38p functions in CPY sorting.
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