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LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing
Little is known about the protein constituents of autophagosome membranes in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that the rat microtubule‐associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a homologue ofExpand
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The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
Macroautophagy is mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which encloses a portion of cytoplasm for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagosome formation is dynamically regulated by starvationExpand
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The role of autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period
At birth the trans-placental nutrient supply is suddenly interrupted, and neonates face severe starvation until supply can be restored through milk nutrients. Here, we show that neonates adapt toExpand
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A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation
Autophagy is a dynamic membrane phenomenon for bulk protein degradation in the lysosome/vacuole. Apg8/Aut7 is an essential factor for autophagy in yeast. We previously found that the carboxy-terminalExpand
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Impairment of starvation-induced and constitutive autophagy in Atg7-deficient mice
Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking mechanism that delivers cytoplasmic constituents into the lysosome/vacuole for bulk protein degradation. This mechanism is involved in the preservation ofExpand
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A protein conjugation system essential for autophagy
Autophagy is a process for the bulk degradation of proteins, in which cytoplasmic components of the cell are enclosed by double-membrane structures known as autophagosomes for delivery to lysosomesExpand
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Tor-Mediated Induction of Autophagy via an Apg1 Protein Kinase Complex
Autophagy is a membrane trafficking to vacuole/lysosome induced by nutrient starvation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tor protein, a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinase, is involved in theExpand
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The Reversible Modification Regulates the Membrane-Binding State of Apg8/Aut7 Essential for Autophagy and the Cytoplasm to Vacuole Targeting Pathway
Autophagy and the Cvt pathway are examples of nonclassical vesicular transport from the cytoplasm to the vacuole via double-membrane vesicles. Apg8/Aut7, which plays an important role in theExpand
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Two Distinct Vps34 Phosphatidylinositol 3–Kinase Complexes Function in Autophagy and Carboxypeptidase Y Sorting inSaccharomyces cerevisiae
Vps30p/Apg6p is required for both autophagy and sorting of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). Although Vps30p is known to interact with Apg14p, its precise role remains unclear. We found that two proteinsExpand
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Hierarchy of Atg proteins in pre‐autophagosomal structure organization
Autophagy is a bulk degradation process that is conserved in eukaryotic cells and functions in the turnover of cytoplasmic materials and organelles. When eukaryotic cells face nutrient starvation,Expand
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