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SARS-CoV-2 D614G spike mutation increases entry efficiency with enhanced ACE2-binding affinity.
It is concluded that the D614G mutation increases cell entry by acquiring higher affinity to ACE2 while maintaining neutralization susceptibility, and further worldwide surveillance is required to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility among humans.
The APOBEC3C crystal structure and the interface for HIV-1 Vif binding
A high-resolution crystal structure of APOBEC3C is reported and the role of a shallow cavity composed of hydrophobic or negatively charged residues between the α2 and α3 helices is revealed, which could provide insight into Vif-A3 interactions and could lead to the development of new pharmacologic anti–HIV-1 compounds.
Biochemical Activities of Highly Purified, Catalytically Active Human APOBEC3G: Correlation with Antiviral Effect
It is demonstrated that APO3G deaminates cytosines in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) only, whereas it binds efficiently to ssDNA and ssRNA, about half as well to a DNA/RNA hybrid, and poorly to double-stranding DNA and RNA.
Deaminase-independent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription by APOBEC3G
The data support a novel mechanism for deaminase-independent inhibition of reverse transcription that is determined by critical differences in the nucleic acid binding properties of A3G, NC and RT.
Glycyrrhizin enhances interleukin‐12 production in peritoneal macrophages
The ability of GL to enhance LPS‐induced IL‐12 production by peritoneal macrophages is demonstrated, and it is indicated that the priming effect of GL on IL‐ 12 production was independent of both IFN‐γ and GM‐CSF.
HIV-2 CRF01_AB: First Circulating Recombinant Form of HIV-2
- S. Ibe, Y. Yokomaku, W. Sugiura
- Biology, MedicineJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
- 1 July 2010
This ectopic observation of the virus outside its original endemic area suggests an ongoing global spread of HIV-2 CRF01_AB, the first circulating recombinant form of HIV, which was identified recently in Japan.
Monomeric APOBEC3G Is Catalytically Active and Has Antiviral Activity
It is found that human APO3G is capable of forming multimeric complexes in transfected HeLa cells and an important role for C97 in the RNA-dependent multimerization of this protein is demonstrated.
Efficient initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Requirement for RNA sequences downstream of the primer binding site abrogated by nucleocapsid protein-dependent primer-template…
- Y. Iwatani, A. E. Rosen, Jianhui Guo, K. Musier-Forsyth, J. G. Levin
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of biological chemistry
- 18 April 2003
Data is presented supporting the conclusion that NC promotes extended interactions between the anticodon stem and variable loop of tRNA(3)(Lys) and a sequence upstream of the A-rich loop in the template that leads to new insights into the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription and the functional role of NC-facilitated tRNA-template interactions in this process.
Structural Features of Antiviral APOBEC3 Proteins are Linked to Their Functional Activities
The biological functions of A3 family members are reviewed with special focus on A3G and three distinct regions of A 3 proteins are involved in the interaction with Vif, which targets A3 proteins for rapid proteasomal degradation.
HIV-1 Vif-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of APOBEC3G involves four critical lysine residues in its C-terminal domain
- Y. Iwatani, D. Chan, W. Sugiura
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 17 November 2009
Spatial constraints imposed by the E3 ligase complex may be an important determinant in Vif-dependent A3G ubiquitination, and substitution of Arg for these residues confers Vif resistance and restores A3Gs antiviral activity in the presence of Vif.