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A2E, a byproduct of the visual cycle
A substantial portion of the lipofuscin that accumulates with age and in some retinal disorders in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, forms as a consequence of light-related vitamin A recycling.Expand
The Biosynthesis of A2E, a Fluorophore of Aging Retina, Involves the Formation of the Precursor, A2-PE, in the Photoreceptor Outer Segment Membrane*
In reaction mixtures of retinal and outer segments and in samples of Royal College of Surgeons rat retina containing outer segment membranous debris, A2-PE was detected as a series of high performance liquid chromatography peaks, each with UV similar to reference A1-PE, thus confirming A2 -PE as the A2E precursor. Expand
Involvement of oxidative mechanisms in blue-light-induced damage to A2E-laden RPE.
The augmentation of cell death in the presence of D(2)O and the protection afforded by quenchers and scavengers of singlet oxygen, indicates that the generation of Singlet oxygen may be involved in the mechanisms leading to the death of A2E-containing RPE cells after blue light illumination. Expand
A2E-epoxides Damage DNA in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
It is demonstrated that A2E-epoxides, independent of singlet oxygen, exhibit reactivity toward DNA with oxidative base changes being at least one of these lesions. Expand
Biosynthetic Studies of A2E, a Major Fluorophore of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin*
The detection in outer segments of a phosphodiesterase activity that can convert A2-PE to A2E may indicate that some portion of the A1-PE that forms in the outer segment membrane may undergo hydrolytic cleavage before internalization by the retinal pigment epithelial cell. Expand
Formation of a nonaoxirane from A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore related to macular degeneration, and evidence of singlet oxygen involvement.
The ability of A2E to serve as an initiator of photodamage may be relevant to studies linking the incidence of advanced atrophic AMD with blue light exposure, particularly in later life. Expand
Anoplin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of the solitary wasp Anoplius samariensis.
Biological evaluation using the synthetic peptide revealed that this peptide exhibited potent activity in stimulating degranulation from rat peritoneal mast cells and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Expand
Isolation and structure of pompilidotoxins, novel peptide neurotoxins in solitary wasp venoms.
Novel peptide neurotoxins, alpha- and beta-pompilidotoxins (alpha- and Beta-PMTXs), were purified from the venoms of the solitary wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons and greatly potentiates synaptic transmission of lobster leg muscle by the presynaptic mechanisms. Expand
Structure and biological activities of eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), a new mast cell degranulating peptide in the venom of the solitary wasp (Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado).
A new mast cell degranulating peptide was isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado, the most common eumenine wasp found in Japan, showing similar activity to mastoparan in stimulating degranulation from rat peritoneal mast cells and RBL-2H3 cells and hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Expand
α-Pompilidotoxin (α-PMTX), a novel neurotoxin from the venom of a solitary wasp, facilitates transmission in the crustacean neuromuscular synapse
A new neurotoxin, named α-pompilidotoxin (α-PMTX) has been found in the venom of the solitary wasp Anoplius safnariensis, which caused great enhancement of both the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the neuromuscular synapse of the lobster walking leg preparation. Expand