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Fitness costs of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.
TLDR
Modeling results show that fitness costs can delay resistance by selecting against Bt-resistant genotypes in refuges where insects are not exposed to Bt toxins, andRefuges designed to increase the dominance or magnitude of fitness costs could be especially useful for delaying pest resistance.
Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory
TLDR
Analysis of more than a decade of global monitoring data reveals that the frequency of resistance alleles has increased substantially in some field populations of Helicoverpa zea, but not in five other major pests in Australia, China, Spain and the United States.
Field-Evolved Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Definition, Theory, and Data
TLDR
Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-t toxin BT crops.
Insect Resistance to Transgenic Bt Crops: Lessons from the Laboratory and Field
TLDR
The success of Bt crops exceeds expectations of many, but does not preclude resistance problems in the future, and violations of key assumptions of the refuge strategy (low resistance allele frequency and recessive inheritance) may occur in some cases.
Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres
TLDR
Field outcomes support theoretical predictions that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, low initial frequency of resistance alleles, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-t toxin BT crops.
Three cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in pink bollworm
TLDR
The results reported here identify the cadherin gene as a leading target for DNA-based screening of resistance to Bt crops in lepidopteran pests.
Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in field populations of pink bollworm.
TLDR
It is reported that the estimated frequency of a recessive allele conferring resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was 0.16 in strains of pink bollworm derived from 10 Arizona cotton fields during 1997, and the assumptions and predictions of resistance management models must be reexamined.
Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton
TLDR
It is suggested that long-term regional pest suppression after deployment of Bt crops may also contribute to reducing the need for insecticide sprays.
Reversing insect adaptation to transgenic insecticidal plants
TLDR
Analytical and simulation models are used for exploring the conditions that prevent or reverse the evolution of resistance, even when resistance is not rare initially and an observed decrease in resistance frequency is understood.
Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops
TLDR
Field‐evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate.
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