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Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) and tomato leaf curl (ToLC) diseases are serious constraints to tomato production in Mali and other countries in West Africa. In 2003 and 2004, samples of tomato showing virus-like symptoms were collected during a survey of tomato virus diseases in Mali. Three predominant symptom phenotypes were observed: (1) TYLC/ToLC(More)
Glutamate is the most abundant free amino acid in the brain and is at the crossroad between multiple metabolic pathways. Considering this, it was a surprise to discover that glutamate has excitatory effects on nerve cells, and that it can excite cells to their death in a process now referred to as “excitotoxicity”. This effect is due to glutamate receptors(More)
 The neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1 was studied in this paper by means of its obvious anti-apoptotic effect on human SHSY5Y cells. SHSY5Y cells were treated with MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium) for 72 hours to induce apoptosis. During the apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activation(More)
Previous research has reported that elevations in circulating growth hormone (GH) levels in meat-type chickens depresses feed intake (FI) more than 30%. It is known that the product of the obese gene, leptin, functions to regulate FI and energy expenditure. To investigate the effect of GH on leptin gene expression, broiler chickens were infused with(More)
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