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Protein kinases that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) are activated in stressed cells and negatively regulate protein synthesis. Phenotypic analysis of targeted mutations in murine cells reveals a novel role for eIF2alpha kinases in regulating gene expression in the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in amino(More)
Protein synthesis and the folding of the newly synthesized proteins into the correct three-dimensional structure are coupled in cellular compartments of the exocytosis pathway by a process that modulates the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) in response to a stress signal from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Activation(More)
An algorithm based on the physics of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies for the retrieval of vegetation green leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) from surface reflectances was developed and implemented for operational processing prior to the launch of the moderate resolution imaging(More)
The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound(More)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate, but(More)
We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons(More)
Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels exist as multigene families that share common structural features. Different Ca2+ channels are distinguished by their electrophysiology and pharmacology and can be classified as either low or high voltage-activated channels. Six alpha1 subunit genes cloned previously code for high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels; therefore,(More)
TRAPP is a conserved protein complex required early in the secretory pathway. Here, we report two forms of TRAPP, TRAPP I and TRAPP II, that mediate different transport events. Using chemically pure TRAPP I and COPII vesicles, we have reconstituted vesicle targeting in vitro. The binding of COPII vesicles to TRAPP I is specific, blocked by GTPgammaS, and,(More)
Soil acidification is a major problem in soils of intensive Chinese agricultural systems. We used two nationwide surveys, paired comparisons in numerous individual sites, and several long-term monitoring-field data sets to evaluate changes in soil acidity. Soil pH declined significantly (P < 0.001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese(More)