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Protein kinases that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) are activated in stressed cells and negatively regulate protein synthesis. Phenotypic analysis of targeted mutations in murine cells reveals a novel role for eIF2alpha kinases in regulating gene expression in the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in amino(More)
Protein synthesis and the folding of the newly synthesized proteins into the correct three-dimensional structure are coupled in cellular compartments of the exocytosis pathway by a process that modulates the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) in response to a stress signal from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Activation(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibit translation initiation. This response is believed to be mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and is hypothesized to reduce the work load imposed on the folding machinery during stress. Here we report that mutating the gene encoding the ER(More)
ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and core histone acetylation and deacetylation represent mechanisms to alter nucleosome structure. NuRD is a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and the histone binding proteins RbAp48 and RbAp46 form a core complex shared(More)
Soil acidification is a major problem in soils of intensive Chinese agricultural systems. We used two nationwide surveys, paired comparisons in numerous individual sites, and several long-term monitoring-field data sets to evaluate changes in soil acidity. Soil pH declined significantly (P < 0.001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in which familial-linked genes have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Mutations in Parkin, a ring-finger-containing protein of unknown function, are implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that Parkin binds to(More)
Human type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin action and insulin secretion. It has been difficult to identify a single molecular abnormality underlying these features. Insulin-receptor substrates (IRS proteins) may be involved in type 2 diabetes: they mediate pleiotropic signals initiated by receptors for insulin and other cytokines.(More)
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local biomechanical factors (such as muscle(More)
The protein kinase PERK couples protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to polypeptide biosynthesis by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha), attenuating translation initiation in response to ER stress. PERK is highly expressed in mouse pancreas, an organ active in protein secretion. Under(More)